3 Yrs IAS Foundation Course After Intermediate /10+2

Become an IAS Officer After 12th

If your vision becomes an IAS officer, it’s the right time to take your first step towards your aim. The best and easy way is to join our IAS Foundation Course just after your 10+2.

We at IAS Next, the best IAS coaching in Lucknow offers specially designed IAS Foundation Course for 10+2 candidates (English Medium Only) who are looking for a bright career in civil services.

Key Features of the IAS Foundation Course

  1. The clarity in theories & Concepts to answer any given question more accurately.
  2.  Multiple modes of delivering the same topic so as to ensure conceptual clarity
  3.  Adopt the most advanced technological of audio-videos, pictorial representations so as to build a realistic understanding of the subject matter.
  4.  Incredible insights to develop the best answers.
  5.  Detailed analysis of previous year questions so as to ensure
    •  Right orientation
    •  Prioritize the topics
    •  Helps you to choose what to read and more importantly what not to read
    •  To approach the main exam with the right strategy
  6.  Experienced faculty – Retired and In-service IAS/IPS officers.
  7.  India’s best quality and highly relevant printed materials.
  8.  The more personal, small-group teaching (supervisions) is the most distinctive feature of the classroom system.
  9.  High Success rate.

What do you Study here?

Geography – Economic and Human Geography of India and the World, like Distribution of Key natural resources, Earthquakes, Cyclones and other important phenomena.

History – Ancient, Medieval and Modern Indian History and also important world-historical events.

Economics – Utilization of Very important economic resources for the Growth and Development, Employment creation, Agriculture or Industrial planning, Land Reforms, Energy sector, etc.

Constitution and Governance> – Understanding of Indian Constitution, Centre-State Government relations, Good Governance concepts, Understanding Indian Judicial System, Electoral system, NGOs, Self-help Groups, Welfare Schemes etc.

International Relations – Indian and its neighbourhood relations, relations with other important countries, International Institutions like IMF, World Bank, European Union, BRICS, World Trade Organization WTO etc.

Science and Technology – Scientific developments in everyday life, Achievements of Indian Scientists, ISRO, NASA achievements, Revolution from Nano-Technology and Bio-Technology, etc.

Environmental issues – Environmental conservation, Reducing Environmental Pollution and Degradation etc.

Disaster Management – Earthquakes, Tsunamis, Cyclones, Droughts and Effective Control of Natural and Man-made disaster problems.

Internal Security issues – Addressing issues of Terrorism, Naxalism, Separatism, Communal issues, Security issues at the borders, Money laundering, Cyber Attacks and their preventive measures etc.

Ethics and Integrity – Ethics and morals in the society, Human Value system, Lessons from Great leaders, reformers and administrators, Family values, Values-driven Educational System, developing good Attitude etc.

Understanding these issues right from early age broadens the thinking about various issues. Every Child can have meaningful Education from Childhood.

Most Prestigious Career Opportunities

Can get the Best and the Most Prestigious career which others can only dream of.
This includes IAS, IPS, IFS, IRS and Indian Railways, Indian Postal Service, Indian Forest Service and many more top Central Government Jobs.

  •  These candidates can be selected for Intelligence Bureau (IB Officers), SSC Officers etc.
  •  Apart from this, there are a wide range of State government (Group-1, Group-2 Officers) and Central Government posts which can be cracked by those who prepare from their Childhood.
  •  Can get into Highest Cadre bank Officers posts like Probationary Officers, or Higher Managerial Officer posts Of Reserve Bank of India and other Well reputed national and global banks.
  •  Candidates who had prepared for Civil Services are given preference while recruiting for Most of the Top Private Managerial Jobs.

To know About Full course and Program visit : IAS NEXT 3 YEAR IAS FOUNDATION COURSE AFTER 12TH

Know About Other Career after 10+2 visit: Educate next

To Know About PCS-J Visit: Best PCS-J Coaching in Lucknow

Abolition of Untouchability: by IAS NEXT( IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in lucknow)

Abolition of Untouchability

by IAS NEXT( IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in Lucknow)

Abolition of Untouchability

“Untouchability” is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.”                                                               –Art. 17 Indian Constitution


The Constitution of India has special provisions dealing with the abolition of Untouchability. Central Legislation exists in the form of the Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989. In colleges and universities and in state employment positive discrimination exists and a percentage of seats and jobs are reserved for those from the socially and economically backward sections of society.

It may not be inappropriate in this context to recall what Gandhi feelingly said on one occasion on the subject. He said: “I do not want to be reborn, but if I am reborn, I wish that I would be reborn as a Harijan, as an untouchable, so that I may lead a continuous struggle against the oppression and indignities that have been heaped upon these classes of people”.

With the epic fast of Mahatma Gandhi in 1932 in protest against the “communal award” by which the Scheduled Castes were to be given a separate electorate, a vigorous movement against untochablitity was launched on a national basis. Solemn pledges were taken by many members of the Indian National Congress and others that untouchability would no longer find any asylum in the country.

The movement brought forth some good results. Many temples were thrown open and the rigours of untouchability had become a thing of the past at least in the urban centers of the country. But the evil of untouchablitity still lingered in many forms and in many parts of the country. Speaking on the Untouchability Offences Bill, which was passed into the very vitals of our society. It is not only a blot on the Hindu religion, but it has created intolerance, sectionalism and fissiparous tendencies. Many of the evils that we find in our society today are traceable to this heinous monstrosity.

It was really strange that Hindus with their sublime philosophy and their merciful kind-heartedness even towards insects should have been party to such intolerable dwarfing of manhood. Yet, untouchability has been there for centuries and we have now to atone for it. The idea of untouchability is entirely repugnant to the structure, spirit and provisions of the Constitution.”

The Untouchability Offences Act came into force in June 1955. In one sense it may be said to be said to be an expansion of Article 15 of the Constitution. The Act intended to make the enforcement of any disability against the Scheduled Castes illegal.

It provided that when the victim is a member of a Scheduled Caste, the commission of the forbidden act should be presumed to have been done on the ground of untouchability. It has laid down that whatever is open to the general public or to Hindus generally should be equally open to members of the Schedule Castes also.

Thus, for example, no shop may refuse to sell and no person may refuse to render any service to any person on the ground of untouchability. Every person is entitled to such services on the terms on which they may be obtained in the ordinary course of business by any other person.

Any refusal on that ground entails cancellation of any license required in respect of such profession. Any act which interferes in any manner with the exercise of such rights by any person was made an offence punishable with imprisonment for six months or a fine up to Rs. 500 or both. A subsequent offence is punishable with both imprisonment and fine. All offence under the Act are cognizable and may be compounded with leave of the Court.

The Untouchability Offence Act was amended in 1976 making its penal clauses more stringent. The Act has been also renamed as the Protection of Civil Rights Act. One significant new provision of the Act is that a person convicted of an untouchability offence will be disqualified for contesting the elections. It was for the first time that such a provision became a law in the history of elections in India.

In spite of the constitutional provisions, the operation of the Untouchability Offences Act and judicial pronouncements, India cannot yet claim to have rooted out the evil of untouchability completely. In the fight against social evils, legislation is only one of many weapons. People need to be educated and be aware about this malaise. So that we can think about complete eradication of untouchability from society.

prepare PCS-Jwith Sudhanshu Mishra & team

Supreme Court on Acid Attack- (for PCS-J mains & IAS/PCS mains paper no.2 )

Supreme Court on Acid Attack- by Sudhanshu Mishra

(for PCS-J mains & IAS/PCS mains paper no.2 )


The Apex Court of India has given state authorities three months to implement new rules to control over the counter sales of acids, which have been used to maim, disfigure and even kill people, particularly women, for decades.

Court has directed India’s 28 states and seven union territories to issue licenses to retailers selling acid after the government earlier this week said it will categorize acid as poison. The court said anyone under the age of 18 will not be able to purchase acids like hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric. Shops will have to keep details like the quantity sold and the addresses of buyers, who will need to present photo identification to purchase acids, the court said Thursday.

“Over the counter sale of acid is completely prohibited unless the seller maintains a log/register recording the sale of acid,” the Supreme Court said. Retailers will have to declare the amount of acid being stocked to the police, the court said. Failure to do so would lead to undeclared stock being confiscated and a fine of up to Rs. 50,000

The court heard a plea by a woman named Laxmi who is seeking changes to the law on acid attacks and sales. Laxmi, who only goes by one name, was left badly scarred on her face, arms and chest after she was attacked with acid in 2005 in New Delhi.

Provisions in IPC Related to Acid Attack

              After the recommendation of Justice Verma Committee following sections in IPC, 1860 were inserted by the amendment Act, 2013:-

Sec. 326A. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.- Whoever causes permanent or partial damage or deformity to, or burns or maims or disfigures or disables, any part or parts of the body of a person or causes grievous hurt by throwing acid on or by administering acid to that person, or by using any other means with the intention of causing or with the knowledge that he is likely to cause such injury or hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine :

Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses of the treatment of the victim :

Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

326B. Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid.- Whoever throws or attempts to throw acid on any person or attempts to administer acid to any person, or attempts to use any other means, with the intention of causing permanent or partial damage or deformity or burns or maiming or disfigurement or disability or grievous hurt to that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

              Explanation 1.- For the purposes of section 326A and this section, “acid” includes any substance which has an acidic or corrosive character or burning nature, that is capable of causing bodily injury leading to scars or disfigurement or temporary or permanent disability.

Explanation 2.– For the purposes of section 326A and this section, permanent or partial damage or deformity shall not be required to be irreversible.’

for further information /query

you may contact IAS NEXT 

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All About article 14 of Indian Constitution with Cases (best for PCS-J /APO): BY IAS NEXT :BEST PCS-J COACHING IN LUCKNOW

Article 14:-Equality before law-BY IAS NEXT TEAM 
“The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the
laws within the territory of India”.

Dr Jennings, “Equality before law means that among equals the law should be equal and should be equally administered, that like should be treated alike..”

according to Professor Dicey -Rule of law means

First- Absence of arbitrary power or supremacy of Law

Second- Equality before law

Third- The Constitution is the result of the ordinary law of land

Equal protection of the laws-USA, -Like should be treated alike and not that unlike should be treated alike.



The originator of the rule of law was Sir Edward Coke. Dicey developed the theory of Coke in his classic work ‘The Law and the Constitution’ published in the year 1885. According to Dicey, there are three meaning of the said doctrine.

The absence of arbitrary power

Equality before law

The Constitution is the result of the ordinary law of the land

Dicey, “Every official from the Prime Minister down to the constable or a Collector of taxes is under the same responsibility for every act done without legal justification as any other citizen.”

Dr.Jenning, “ Equality before the law means that among the equals the law should be equal and should be equally administered, and that like should be treated alike..”

V.N.Shukla, “Like should be treated alike and not that unlike should be treated alike.” Preamble – Equality of Status and Opportunity

Article 14- The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law and equal protection of laws within the territory of India.The guarantee of equality before the law is an aspect of what Dicey calls the ‘Rule of Law’ in England.

West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar- This Article combines the English doctrine of the rule of law and the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment to the American Constitution. Continue reading All About article 14 of Indian Constitution with Cases (best for PCS-J /APO): BY IAS NEXT :BEST PCS-J COACHING IN LUCKNOW

Market Equilibrium- Basic Economics lectures (L-1)

Market Equilibrium- Basic Economics lectures (L-1)


Market Equilibrium

A situation in which the supply of an item is exactly equal to its demand. Since there is neither surplus nor shortage in the market, price tends to remain stable in this situation.

How is equilibrium established?

  1. Graphically, we say that demand contracts inwards along the curve and supply extend outwards along the curve.
  2. Both of these changes are called movements along the demand or supply curve in response to a price change.
  3. Demand contracts because at the higher price, the income effect and substitution effect combine to discourage demand.
  4. Demand extends at lower prices because the income and substitution effect combine to encourage demand.
  5. In terms of supply, higher prices encourage supply, given the supplier’s expectation of higher revenue and profits, and hence higher prices reduce the opportunity cost of supplying more.
  6. Lower prices discourage supply because of the increased opportunity cost of supplying more. The opportunity cost of supply relates to the possible alternative of the factors of production.


Bihar Judicial Services 2018 or Bihar BPSC PCSJ 2018 or Bihar Civil Judge 2018 Application Eligibility DatesA notification is going to be out for the Bihar Judicial Services Exam 2018 by the authority of BPSC (also called Bihar Public Service Commission).

Bihar Judicial Services 2018

Bihar BPSC PCSJ 2018 or Bihar Civil Judge 2018

Bihar Judicial Services Exam 2018 Dates:

Issue date of official notification = Published
last date to submit online registration = 08 Sept to 28 Sept 2018
Last Date pay application fees: 03 October 2018
Last Date of fill application form: 10 October 2018
Date of issue of admit card = 15 Days before
Date of Prelim exam = Nov 2018
A result of Prelim exam= Dec 2018
Date of the Main exam – updated soon
The result of Mains exam – updated soon

Eligibility Bihar Judicial Services 2018:

  • The applicant should be Indian Citizens.
  • The candidate must having Bihar Domicile so as to get reservation benefits and upper age relaxation
  • Candidates must have finished graduation in Law from a recognized University/College.
  • The minimum age for all the candidates is 22 years.
  • Upper age relaxation of 3 years to OBC category will be given.
  • Upper age relaxation of 5 years to SC/ST category will be given.
  • Unreserved – 37 Years
  • OBC/EBC – 40 Years
  • SC/ST – 42 Years

How to Apply Bihar Judicial Services 2018:

  • Application form of this exam will be available on BPSC.
  • Applicants have to fill details in the application form so as to register themselves there.
  • The applicants after registering on the site of BPSC, they must upload scanned photo and Signature there.
  • Then after that, submission of application fee must be done.
  • Finally, after that, take the printout of the application form.

Bihar Judicial Services 2018 Application form:

  • Applicants will be required to submit the application fee for registering for this exam.
  • Applicants belonging to General category must pay Rs.600 as fee.
  • Applicants belonging to General category must pay Rs.150 as fee.
  • The fees can be paid via Bank Challan, Net Banking etc.

Click here to Apply…


It is a 3 stage exam:

(a) Preliminary (Objective Type)
(b) Mains (Written Type)
(c) Personality Test (Interview)

Syllabus of Preliminary Examination:

It will consist of 2 papers:
1st Paper: (100 Marks)

  • General Science
  • General Knowledge

2nd Paper: (150 Marks)

  • Constitutional Law of India and England
  • Law of Evidence & Procedure
  • Transfer of Property Act, Principles of Equity, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief Act
  • Hindu Law and Mohammedan Law
  • Law of Contract and Torts

Commercial Law

  1. Negotiable Instruments Act
  2. Sale of Goods Act
  3. Partnership Act
  4. Company Law

Syllabus of Main Examination:

It is mainly divided into 2 parts:
(A) Compulsory Paper

  • General Science (100 Marks)
  • General Knowledge (150 Marks)
  • Law of Evidence and Procedure (150 Marks)
  • General Hindi (100 Marks)

(B) Optional Paper

  • Hindu law and Mohammedan law (150 Marks)
  • Constitutional Law of India and England (150 Marks)
  • Transfer of Property Act, Principles of Equity, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief Act (150 marks)

Commercial Law (150 marks)

  1. Sale of Goods Act
  2. Negotiable Instruments Act
  3. Company Law
  4. Partnership Act

Exam Pattern:

  • There will be some Compulsory question papers
  • There will be some Optional papers.
  • The details about Compulsory and Optional Papers are given below.
Compulsory Subject details:
S.No. Subjects Subject Code Total Marks
1.         General Knowledge including current affairs 01 150
2.         Elementary General Science 02 100
3.         General Hindi 03 100
4.         General English 04 100
5.         Law of Evidence and Procedure 05 150

Optional Subject Details

S.No. Subjects Subject Code Total Marks
1.         Constitution and Administrative Law of India 06 150
2.         Hindu Law and Muhammadan Law 07 150
3.         Law of Transfer of Property and Principle of Equity, Law of Trust and Specific Relief 08 150
4.         Law of Contract and Torts 09 150
5.         Commercial Law 10 150

Admit card Bihar Judicial Services 2018:

  • Admit card of Bihar Judicial Services Exam 2018 will be issued on the site BPSC.
  • The applicants can download Admit card of Bihar Judicial Services Exam 2018 on that website and also here on this page.
  • They must enter their Registration no. to download Hall ticket.


for more info call IAS NEXT (www.iasnext.com)

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Current Affairs for UPPCS-2018 & UPPCS-J 2017 -SEPT PART 2

Current Affairs for UPPCS-2018 & UPPCS-J 2017 -SEPT PART 2

  1. Which cities will host the Summer Olympics for the year 2024 and 2028 respectively, as was announced by the International Olympic Committee on 13 September 2017? – Paris and Los Angeles
  2. India on 14 September 2017 sent a consignment of humanitarian assistance to Bangladesh for Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar. What is the name given to this humanitarian relief operation? – “Operation Insaniyat”
  3. Which state released its policy for electric vehicles on 14 September 2017 and thus became the first Indian state to formulate an electric vehicle policy? – Karnataka
  4. What Happened”, the 469-page fiction novel that was released on 12 September 2017, is the name of memoirs of which political personality? – Hillary Clinton
  5. NASA’s Cassini spacecraft disintegrated in the skies above Saturn early on 15 September 2017 to end the iconic mission that covered a journey of 4.9 billion miles and sent incredible information on the ringed planet. In which year it was launched from the Earth? – 1997
  6. What is the name given to the nationwide sanitation campaign launched by President Ramnath Kovind from Kanpur on 15 September 2017 that will highlight Union Government’s flagship cleanliness initiative ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’? – “Swachhta Hi Seva”
  7. What is the name of the indigenously developed Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM) whose development flight trials were successfully completed on 15 September 2017 and is now ready for its induction into the Indian Air Force (IAF)? – Astra
  8. Exercise Yudh Abhyas 2017, the joint military training exercise between armies of India and the United States commenced on 14 September 2017 at which place? – Washington (US)
  9. What is India’s rank in the World Economic Forum’s (WEF’s) Global Human Capital Index (GHCI) for 2017 that was released on 14 September 2017? – 103 out of 130 countries
  10. Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the Sardar Sarovar Dam – the world’s second biggest dam in Gujarat on 17 September 2017. The foundation stone of this massive dam was laid in which year? – 1961
  11. Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh, who was the only officer of the Indian Air Force (IAF) to be promoted to five-star rank, passed away on 16 September 2017 at the age of 98. Apart from being the only five-star ranked officer of the IAF he also had which unique distinction? – He was the first IAF Chief to be designated the rank of Air Chief Marshal
  12. India’s foreign exchange reserves crossed which milestone figure for the first time during September 2017, as was disclosed by the RBI on 15 September 2017? – $400 billion
  13. Which state became the third BJP-run state to waive farm loans on 14 September 2017? – Rajasthan

-Uttar Pradesh had waived Rs. 36,359 crore in April 2017, Maharashtra had waived Rs. 30,000 crore in June 2017, while Congress-ruled Punjab announced a waiver amounting to Rs. 20,500 crore in June 2017.

  1. V. Sindhu defeated world champion Nozomi Okuhara to win the women’s singles title of which Super Series badminton tournament on 17 September 2017? – Korea Open Super Series
  2. What is the name of the UPI-based payments app launched by Internet giant Google on 18 September 2017 with which the company joined the digital payments ecosystem in India? – ‘Tez’
  3. Which entity became the first non-life insurer to bring its initial public offering (IPO) and will thus become the first such entity to be listed on Indian stock exchanges? – ICICI Lombard
  4. Who was appointed the new Chief of the National Investigation Agency (NIA) by the Union Government on 18 September 2017? – C Modi
  5. Which state government on 19 September 2017 launched the ‘Shaheed Gram Vikas Yojana’ for upliftment of tribal areas in the state? – Jharkhand
  6. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on 19 September 2017 reduced the interconnect usage charges (IUC) by 57% thus giving a major blow to the incumbent mobile operators. What will be the new IUC applicable from 1 October 2017? – 6 paise per minute
  7. Which Central American country was hit by 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 19 September 2017 resulting in extensive damage and death of over 250 people? – Mexico
  8. The Union Cabinet on 20 September 2017 gave its approval to a revamped ‘Khelo India’ scheme that will focus on nurturing sports talent in the country and connecting rural India to global games. What is the main provision under this scheme? – 1,000 selected athletes will receive an annual scholarship of Rs. 500,000 each for 8 years
  9. All peer-to-peer lending (P2P) platforms will be regulated by which entity as was notified by the Union Government on 20 September 2017? – Reserve Bank of India
  10. Tata Steel on 19 September 2017 signed a MoU with which German steel major that will create Europe’s second-largest steel enterprise? – ThyssenKrupp AG
  11. Liliane Bettencourt, listed by Forbes as the richest woman in the world with a fortune of almost $50 billion, died on 20 September 2017. She was associated with which cosmetics entity? – L’Oreal
  12. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 25 September 2017 launched a scheme to provide ‘last mile electricity connectivity to all rural and urban households’. What is the name of this scheme? – ‘Saubhagya – Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana’ 16,320 crore scheme

 The scheme targets to complete electrification by March 2019. States that reach the target by December 2018 would get additional funds.

 Under the scheme, the Union government would provide 60% funds for the programme amounting to Rs. 12,320 crore. For special category states, the Centre’s contribution would be 85%. State governments and their utilities would provide 10% funds. In the case of special category states, it would be 5%. The remaining 30% expenditure would be met through loans.

  1. With the economy hitting a rough patch in recent months, the erstwhile Economic Advisory Council (EAC) to the Prime Minister was revived by the Union Government on 25 September 2017. Who is the heading this newly constituted council? – Bibek Debroy

-Niti Aayog member Bibek Debroy has been picked as the Chairman of the 5-member Council, which will also include Aayog’s principal advisor and former finance secretary Ratan Watal as its member-secretary. Economist Surjit Bhalla, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) director Rathin Roy and Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research professor Ashima Goyal are other members of the council. The EAC to the PM had been rendered defunct after the previous UPA government demitted office in May 2014.

  1. What is the new minimum average monthly balance (MAB) requirement for SBI’s savings account holders as was revised by the bank on 25 September 2017? –  3,000
  2. What is the name of the first indigenous Scorpene-class submarine that was handed over to the Indian Navy for its commissioning on 21 September 2017? – INS Kalavari under ‘Project 75’,
  3. Which banking entity on 22 September 2017 launched India’s first bond index series for overseas investors at the London Stock Exchange (LSE)? – State Bank of India (SBI) named ‘FTSE SBI Bond Index Series’.
  4. Which port trust was renamed as Deendayal Port Trust by the Union Government on 25 September 2017? – Kandla (Gujarat)
  5. Which state is poised to become the first in the country where entire assembly poll will be conducted using the EVMs equipped with VVPAT? – Gujarat
  6. President Ram Nath Kovind on 30 September 2017 appointed which 5 persons as the new Governors/Lt. Governors of states/UTs? – Banwarilal Purohit, Satya Pal Malik, Ganga Prasad, Brig BD Mishra (Retd.) and Admiral DK Joshi (Retd.)

Banwarilal Purohit-  Tamil Nadu

Satya Pal Malik- Bihar

Ganga Prasad- Meghalaya

Brig BD Mishra (Retd.)- Arunachal Pradesh

Admiral DK Joshi (Retd.)- Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Jagdish Mukhi-Assam.


  1. What is India’s rank in World Economic Forum’s (WEF) global competitiveness index that was released on 26 September 2017? – 40 out of 137 countries, Switzerland was ranked as the world’s most competitive economy in the index.
  2. Veteran film, television and theatre actor Tom Alter passed away on 29 September 2017 at the age of 67. He was of …………………descent – American
  3. During September 2017 which automobile company was awarded the order for 10,000 electric vehicles by Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), the world’s largest single electric vehicle procurement order? – Tata Motors
  4. What was India’s infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2016 according to data released by the Office of the Registrar General on 29 September 2017? – 34 per 1,000 live births

-India’s infant mortality rate (IMR) declined to 34 per 1,000 live births in 2016 from 37 per 1,000 live births in 2015. It thus registered 8% decline in IMR as compared to 2015

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Ancient Tamil Nadu  


The land mass between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin is hailed as our Grand Old Country of Bharath by Bharathiyar in his “Ode to Child. During the British rule, most of the parts of south India were called ‘Madras Presidency , In ancient times Tamil Nadu was ruled by

  • Chera
  • Chola
  • Pandya

who were called Mooventhars during the ancient time, the southern part of south India was ruled by Pandyas, west by Cheras, Northeast by Cholas.

Three Sangams

  • The capital of Pandyas was Then Madurai.
  • Tamizhvalartha Thalai Sangam assembled there,
  • The Pandyas ruled over the land with Kapadapuram as its capital, Thenmadurai was taken away by the sea.
  • Kapadapuram the poets gathered and had the Second Sangam, It also became a prey to tsunami later.
  • The last Sangam was held in Madurai
  • First, Second and Third Sangam helped in the development of literature and Tamil flourished under the leadership of Pandyan Kings.

The Continent Lemuria

  • There was a big land mass connecting Africa and Australia, which was called Lemuria after the name of the monkey Lemur.It was believed that human beings evolved from the Lemurs.

Historic period:

  • The historic period of Tamil Nadu began from the Sangam Age
  • Sangam age is the period during which the poets of the Third Sangam joined together and did research on Tamil.
  • The period lasted for 400 years from BT 200 -AT 200.
  • BT-AT was calculated based on the birth year of Thiruvalluvar ie 31 B.C
  • Time can be calculated considering that Thiruvalluvar was born 31 years before Christ
  • Sangam literature, what we got now are Ettuthogai and Pathupattu
  • Poem in this literature was written by Kapilar, Paranar, Avvayyar, Nakkeerar
  • Tamil which is adaptive to grammatical norms and is called Senthamizh.
  • Tamil a classical language, because it had developed without the help of other languages.

The Three Tamil kingdoms

  • The Pandyas
  • The Chera
  • The Chola

The Pandyas


  • The Pandyan king Mudathirumaran and Thalaiyalanganathu Cheruvendra Neduncheziyan who defeated the combined forces of seven kings lived in the Pandya kingdom.
  • The one who played an important role in Sillapathigaram by saying, “Yano Arrasan; Yanae Kalvan” (I am not a king, I am the culprit) and established truth was also a renowned Pandya king.

The Chera

The famous Chera kings were

  • Sillambu Pugazh
  • Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan

The famous Chola kings were

  • Karika
  • Peruvallatha
  • Killivalavan

Famous kings of the medieval period

Rajaraja Chola

The rise of Kingdoms


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Human life is largely influenced by the physiography of the region. The physiography, in turn, is influenced by various endogenic processes operating in the interior of the earth. This makes it necessary for us to understand the interior structure of the earth.

The earth’s radius is 6370 km. Going beyond a limit is not possible as it is very hot at this depth. In such conditions, the knowledge about the interior of the earth is mainly based on estimates and inferences.

The knowledge about the interior of the earth is obtained through direct sources and indirect sources. Direct sources include rock materials from mining areas and molten magma from volcanic eruptions. Besides, scientists are working on “Deep Ocean Drilling Project” and “Integrated Ocean Drilling Project”. These projects have provided information about the interior of Earth through analysis of materials collected at different depths.

Indirect sources include meteors that at times reach the earth, gravitation, magnetic field, and seismic activity. Most of our information about earth’s interior has come from seismic studies.

The sources which provide knowledge about the interior of the earth may be classified into

  • Artificial sources
  • Natural sources
  • Evidence from the theories of the origin of the earth


Artificial sources to understand Interior of the earth

We can know about the interior of the earth with the help of following sources

  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Density

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  • It increases with the depth, as observed in the mines and deep wells
  • The molten lava erupted from the earth’s interior also support this fact.
  • It’s not uniform from the surface towards the earth’s center, in beginning its increases at an average rate of 1 degree Celsius for every 32 meters increase in depth.
  • With such a speed it will be 300-degree celcius at a depth of 10 km, and 1200 degree Celsius at 40 km.
  • But its interior is not in molten state, because rocks buried under the pressure of several km thicknesses of overlying rocks melt at the higher temperature.


  • It also increases from the surface towards the center of the earth due to huge weight of overlying rocks.
  • In deeper portion pressure is tremendously high, its 3 to 4 million times near centre as compared with the pressure of the atmosphere at sea level.
  • Due to high pressure, the molten material beneath earth acquires the property of a solid and is probably in the plastic state.


  • It increases due to increase in pressure and presence of heavier materials towards the earth’s center
  • The outermost layer is composed of sedimentary rock; thickness varies from (0.8km to 1.6 km)
  • The second layer is of crystalline rocks, the density of which ranges from 3.0 to 3.5 at different places.

The average density of the earth is about 5.5, so, without doubt, we can say that it will be more than 5.5 at the core.

Natural sources to understand Interior of the earth

We can know about the interior of the earth with the help of following sources

  • Vulcanicity
  • Seismology (EQ waves)


  • On the basis of upwelling and spread of hot and liquid lava on the earth surface during the volcanic eruption, we can say that there is such a layer which is in the liquid state.
  • Such molten chamber has been termed as magma chamber which supplies magma and lava during volcanic eruptions.

Seismology (Earthquake waves)

  • The place of the occurrence of the earthquake is called focus, and place which experiences the seismic evens first called Epicenter.
  • It is located on the earth’s surface and is always perpendicular to the focus.
  • The focus is always on the earth, the deepest focus has been measured at the depth of 700km from the earth’s surface.
  • There are three broad categories of seismic waves

Primary waves –

  • Longitudinal or compressional waves or P waves are analogous to sound waves, particles move both to and fro from the line of the propagation of the ray.
  • It travels with the fastest speed through solid materials.

Secondary waves –

  • Also called transverse waves or distortion wave or simply S waves.
  • These are analogous to water ripples or light waves, wherein the particles move at right angles to the rays.
  • It cannot pass through liquid materials

Surface waves –

  • Also called long period waves or simply L waves. These waves generally affect the surface of the earth and die out at smaller depth.
  • This wave covers longest distances of all the seismic waves.
  • Their speed is slower than P and S waves but these are most violent and destructive.

How seismic waves are helpful in determining the earth’s interior?

  • So we can say that the nature and properties of the composition of the interior of the earth may be successfully obtained on the basis of the study of these waves.
  • The main aspects such as velocity and travel paths of these waves passing through a homogeneous solid body.
  • But these waves reflect or refract while passing through a body having the heterogeneous composition
  • In reality, the recorded seismic waves denote the fact that these waves seldom follow the straight line paths.
  • Thus it becomes clear that earth is not made of homogenous materials rather there is a variation of density inside the earth.

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  • Crust – The outermost layer, or shell, of the earth (or any other differentiated) planet. Earth’s crust is generally defined as the part of the Earth above the Moho discontinuity. It represents less than one of Earth’s total.


  • Mantle – The zone of earth’s interior between the baseline of the crust  (Moho) discontinuity) and the core. The mantle has an average density of about 3.3g/cm3 and accounts for about 68 percent of earth’s mass. The mantle lies between the crust and the core of the earth. The lower layers of mantle are floored by the Gutenberg discontinuity.
  • Core – The central part of the earth below the depth of 2900 Km.
  • Mohorovivic (Moho) Discontinuity – The first global seismic discontinuity below the surface of the Earth. It lies at a depth varying from about 5 to 10 km beneath the ocean floor to about 35 km beneath the continents, commonly referred to as the Moho.