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Challenges to the authority of a state often emerge from perceptible and distinct threats, which can be contested with the full might of a nation.
A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war. Though LICs are often called ‘limited wars’
It involves the state’s use of military forces applied selectively and with restraint to enforce compliance with its policies or objectives.
It has been defined as, ‘Limited politico-military struggle to achieve political, social, economic or psychological objectives. It is often protracted and ranges from diplomatic, economic and psychological pressure through terrorism and insurgency.
Low-Intensity Conflict is generally confined to a geographical area and is often characterised by constraints on weaponry, tactics and level of violence.’
The common guidelines that emerge from the definition are:
- The nature of the struggle is both political and military in its constitution.
- The struggle can be for the achievement of political, social, economic or psychological objectives.
- The struggle is often protracted.
- The struggle is generally restricted to a specific geographical area.
- There are constraints on the use of weapons.
- The struggle is below the level of conventional war.
Low intensity conflicts in India, despite a long history and a major threat to national security, LICs in India from 1947 to the present ,for example various conflicts such as militancy in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir, multiple insurgencies in the Northeast, the agitation for Gorkhaland and the Naxalite movement, as well as the various dimensions of state intervention.
DEFENCE STUDIES NOTES FOR UPPSC IN ENGLISH
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