The Nagara or North Indian Temple Architecture:

Basic form of a Hindu temple:

  1. Garbhagriha:
  • It literally means‘womb-house’and is a cave like sanctum.
  • The Garbhagriha is made to housethe main icon (main deity)which is itself the focus of much ritual attention.
  1. Mandapa:
  • It is theentranceto the temple.
  • It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at regular intervals) hall that incorporate space for a large number of worshippers.
  • Dances and such other entertainments are practiced here.
  • Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named asArdhamandapa, Mandapa and Mahamandapa.
  1. Shikhara or Vimana:
  • They aremountain like spire of a free standingtemple.
  • Shikharais found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples.
  • Shikharahas a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal like structure.
  1. Amalaka:
  • It is a stone disc like structure at thetop of the templeand they are common in North Indian temples.
  1. Kalasha:
  • It is thetopmost point of the templeand commonly seen in North Indian temples.
  1. Antarala (vestibule):
  • Antarala is a transition area between the Garbhagriha and the temple’s main hall (mandapa).
  1. Jagati:
  • It is araised platform for sitting and praying and is common in NorthIndian temples.
  1. Vahana:
  • It is the mount or vehicle of the temple’s main deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj which is placed axially before the sanctum.

Classification of Indian Temples

Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as

  1. Nagara(in North India)

           2.Dravida (in South India)

  1. the Vesarastyle of temples as an independent style created through the mixing of Nagara and Dravida orders.

Sculptures, Iconography and Ornamentation :

  • Iconography is a branch of art history whichstudies the images of deities.
  • It consists of identification of image based on certain symbols and mythology associated with them.
  • The temple is covered with elaborate sculptures and ornament that form a fundamental part of its conception.

The Nagara or North Indian Temple Architecture :

  • It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it.
  • Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways.
  • Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower), but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came.
  • The garbha griha is always located directly under the tallest tower.

There are many subdivisions of nagara temples depending on the shape of the shikhara:

  1. Latina/ Rekha-Prasada:
  • It is the simple and most common type of shikhara.
  • It is square at the base and the walls curve or slope inwards to a point on top.
  • Latina types are mainly used for housing the garbhagriha.

  1. Phamsana type shikhara:
  • They are broader and shorter than Latina type.
  • Their roof is composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the centre of the building, unlike the Latina ones which looks like sharply rising towers.
  • Phamsana roofs do not curve inwards; instead, they slope upward on a straight incline.
  • In many north Indian temples, the phamsana type is used for mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a Latina building.

  1. Valabhi type shikhara:
  • These are rectangular building with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber.
  • The edge of the vaulted chamber is round, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times.
  • The form of this temple is influenced by ancient building forms that were already in existence.

We can also classify the Nagara Temples on the basis of the region as follows:

Central India:

  • In the later periods, the temples grew from simple four pillared structures to the large complex.
  • This means that similar developments were incorporated in the architecture of temples of both the religions.
  • Two such temples that survive are; temple at Udaygiri which is on the outskirts of Vidisha (it is a part of a large Hindu temple complex) and a temple at Sanchi, which was a Buddhist site.
  • The ancient temples in UP, MP, and Rajasthan share many traits and the most visible is that they are made of Sandstone.
  1. Dashavatara Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, UP:


  • Even though the patrons and donors of the temple are unknown, it is believed that this temple was built in the early 6th century CE.
  • This is a classic example of the late Gupta period.
  • This temple is in thePanchayatanastyle of architecture. [Panchayatana is an architectural style where the main shrine is built on a rectangular plinth with four smaller subsidiary shrines at the four corners and making it a total of five shrines – i.e., Pancha]
  • There are 3 main reliefs of Vishnu on the temple walls.
  • The temple depicts Vishnu in various forms due to which it was assumed that the four subsidiary shrines must also house Vishnu’s avatars and the temple was mistaken for a dashavatara temple.
  1. Temples at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh:
  • The temples at Khajuraho were made in the 10th century, about 400 years after the temple at Deogarh and the complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The temples were patronized, by Chandela kings.
  • The temples at Khajuraho are all made of Sandstone.
  • The largest temple at Khajuraho is theKandariya Mahadeva temple which is attributed toking Ganda.
  • The Lakshmana temple dedicated to Vishnu was built in 954 by Chandela king, Dhanga.
  • All the towers or shikhara of the temple rise high, upward in a curved pyramidal fashion, emphasizing the temple’s vertical thrust ending in a horizontal fluted disc called an Amalaka topped with a Kalasha or a vase.
  • The crowning element Kalasha and Amalaka are to be found on all nagara temples of this period.
  • The Khajuraho temples are also known for their extensive erotic sculptures (about 10% of total sculptures); the erotic expression gives equal importance in human experience as a spiritual pursuit, and it is seen as a part of the larger cosmic whole.
  • Many Hindu temples, therefore feature Mithun   (embracing couples-erotic sculptures) sculptures, considered auspicious.
  • [Khajuraho dance festival is organized by MP Kala Parishad and is one week long (first week of February) festival of classical dances celebrated annually against the spectacular backdrop of Khajuraho]

West India :

  • There are too numerous temples in the northwestern parts of India, including Gujarat and Rajasthan, and stylistically extendable, at times, to western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The stones to build temples ranges in color and type.
  • While sandstone is the commonest, a grey to black basalt can be seen in some of the 10th to 12thcentury temple sculptures.
  • Among the most important art historical sites in the region isSamlaji in Gujarat.
  • A large number of sculptures made of grey schist have been found in this region.
  1. Sun Temple, Modhera, Gujarat:

  • The temple dates back to the early 11th century and was built by raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki dynasty.
  • The Solanki were a branch of later Chalukyas.
  • There is a massive rectangular stepped tank called Surya Kundin front of it.
  • The hundred square meter rectangular pond is perhaps the grandest temple tank in India.
  • A hundred and eight miniature shrines are carved in between the steps inside the tank.

East India :

  • East Indian temples include those found in the North-East, Bengal, and Odisha and each of these three areas produces a distinct type of temple.
  • It appears that terracotta was the main medium of construction.


  • An old 6th century sculpted door frame from DaParvatia near Tezpur and another few stray sculptures from Rangagora Tea Estate near Tinsukia in Assam bear witness to the import of the Gupta idiom in that region.
  • The post-Gupta style continued in the region well in the 10th
  • However, by the 12th to 14th centuries, a distinct regional style developed in Assam.
  • The style that came with the migration of theTaisfrom upper Burma mixed with the dominant Pala style of Bengal and led to the creation of what was later known as the Ahom style in and aroundGuwahati.


  • The style of sculptures during the period between the 9th and 11th centuries in Bengal (including Bangladesh) and Bihar is known as the Pala style, named after the ruling dynasty at that time.
  • That style in the mid 11th and mid 13th centuries is named after the Sena kings.
  • The Siddheswara Mahadeva temple in Burdwan, W.B, built in the 9th century, shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka, is an example of early Pala style.
  • Many of the temples from 9th to 12th centuries were located at Telkupi in Puruta district, W.B.
  • They were submerged when dams were constructed in the region.
  • The architecture of these temples heavily influenced the earliest Bengal Sultanate buildings at Gaur and Pandya.
  • Many local vernacular building traditions of Bengal also influenced the style of the temple in that region.
  • The most prominent of these was the shape of the sloping or curving side of the bamboo roof of a Bengali hut.
  • This feature was eventually even adopted in Mughal buildings and is known as across India as the Bangla Roof (word Bungalow derived from this).

Odisha (Kalinga Architecture):

The main architectural features of Odisha temples are classified in three orders:

  1. Rekhapida/ Rekha deula/ rathaka deula:
  •      Rekha means line and it is a tall straight building with a shape of the sugar loaf. It covers the garbhagriha.
  1. Pidhadeula:
  • It is a square building with a pyramid-shaped roof and is mainly found for housing the outer dancing and offering halls.
  1. Khakradeula:
  • It is a rectangular building with a truncated pyramid shaped roof. Temples of the female deities are usually in this form (garbhagriha usually) and will have a resemblance with Dravidian temples of the south.
  • The temples of Odisha constitute a distinct substyle within nagara order.
  • In general, here the Shikhara called Deul in Odisha is vertical almost until the top when it suddenly curves sharply inwards.
  • Mandapas in Odisha are called Jagamohanas.
  1. Sun temple, Konark, Odisha:
  • It is built around 1240 on the shores of the Bay of Bengal.
  • The temple is set on a high base, its walls covered in extensive, detailed ornamental carving.
  • These include 12 pairs of enormous wheels sculpted with spokes and hubs, representing the chariot wheels of the sun God who, in mythology, rides a chariot driven by 8 horses, sculpted here at the entrance staircase.
  1. Jagannatha temple, Puri, Odisha:
  • It is also located on the eastern coast, at Puri, Odisha.
  • The temple is apart of Char Dham(Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram) pilgrimages that a Hindu is expected to make in one’s lifetime.
  • When most of the deities in the temples of India are made of stone or metal, the idol of Jagannatha is made of wood which is ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or nineteen years by using sacred trees.
  • The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
  • The temple is famous for its annual Ratha Yatra or Chariot festival.

Ancient Tamil Nadu  


The land mass between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin is hailed as our Grand Old Country of Bharath by Bharathiyar in his “Ode to Child. During the British rule, most of the parts of south India were called ‘Madras Presidency , In ancient times Tamil Nadu was ruled by

  • Chera
  • Chola
  • Pandya

who were called Mooventhars during the ancient time, the southern part of south India was ruled by Pandyas, west by Cheras, Northeast by Cholas.

Three Sangams

  • The capital of Pandyas was Then Madurai.
  • Tamizhvalartha Thalai Sangam assembled there,
  • The Pandyas ruled over the land with Kapadapuram as its capital, Thenmadurai was taken away by the sea.
  • Kapadapuram the poets gathered and had the Second Sangam, It also became a prey to tsunami later.
  • The last Sangam was held in Madurai
  • First, Second and Third Sangam helped in the development of literature and Tamil flourished under the leadership of Pandyan Kings.

The Continent Lemuria

  • There was a big land mass connecting Africa and Australia, which was called Lemuria after the name of the monkey Lemur.It was believed that human beings evolved from the Lemurs.

Historic period:

  • The historic period of Tamil Nadu began from the Sangam Age
  • Sangam age is the period during which the poets of the Third Sangam joined together and did research on Tamil.
  • The period lasted for 400 years from BT 200 -AT 200.
  • BT-AT was calculated based on the birth year of Thiruvalluvar ie 31 B.C
  • Time can be calculated considering that Thiruvalluvar was born 31 years before Christ
  • Sangam literature, what we got now are Ettuthogai and Pathupattu
  • Poem in this literature was written by Kapilar, Paranar, Avvayyar, Nakkeerar
  • Tamil which is adaptive to grammatical norms and is called Senthamizh.
  • Tamil a classical language, because it had developed without the help of other languages.

The Three Tamil kingdoms

  • The Pandyas
  • The Chera
  • The Chola

The Pandyas


  • The Pandyan king Mudathirumaran and Thalaiyalanganathu Cheruvendra Neduncheziyan who defeated the combined forces of seven kings lived in the Pandya kingdom.
  • The one who played an important role in Sillapathigaram by saying, “Yano Arrasan; Yanae Kalvan” (I am not a king, I am the culprit) and established truth was also a renowned Pandya king.

The Chera

The famous Chera kings were

  • Sillambu Pugazh
  • Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan

The famous Chola kings were

  • Karika
  • Peruvallatha
  • Killivalavan

Famous kings of the medieval period

Rajaraja Chola

The rise of Kingdoms

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Jainism and Buddhism

Jainism and Buddhism

  • 6th century was a period of intellectual awakening
  • Existed to reformed the socio – religious organizations
  • The aim of these religions is to remove the superstitious beliefs, unwanted religious rituals and the caste discrimination
  • Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism



In Jainism, 24 Thirthankaras were worshipped.

The first Tirthankara was Adhinathar, who was known as Rishabadeva

Vardhamana Mahavira is the last Tirthankara. (24th)

Vardhamana Mahavira lived during B.C.534 – B.C.462

  • His father was Siddhartha
  • His mother was Trisala.
  • Wife was Yasodha
  • Performed penance for 12 years
  • He treated both joy and sorrow equally
  • Jian” which means the “Conqueror
  • People also called him as “Mahavira”.
  • Why are people born? Why do they die? What are the causes for their sufferings? these were the important questions that arose in him.

Previous birth

  • Mahavira never accepted this
  • Human beings are responsible for their own problems


  • Should not harm any
  • reached a restricted life
  • Principles of ‘Ahimsa’ or ‘Non-Violence’
  • Jains starved and subjected themselves to all bodily hardships.


Trade & Commerce

  • Should not wage war or do agriculture.
  • Trade and commerce was their occupation

Three Gems or Triratna

  • Right Knowledge
  • Right Knowledge
  • Right Action

The Five Doctrines

  • Ahimsa (Non-Violence/Satya (Truth)
  • Asatya (Non-Stealing)
  • Aparigraha (Non-possession)
  • Brahmacharya (Celibacy

Kings who followed Jainism

  • Chandragupta Maurya
  • Kalingathu Karavelen
  • Koon Pandian
  • Mahendravarma Pallava I

Contribution of Jains to Tamil Literature:

  • Sillapathigaram
  • Chivgachinthamani,
  • Literature and Grammar works
  • Yapperungalaviruthi, Neminatham, Nannool, Agaporulvillakam, Naladiar, Nanmanikadikai, Pazhamozhi,


The contribution of Jains to architecture:

  • Rajasthan – Dilwara temple at Mount Abu
  • Kajiraho – Chittoor, RanakpurTemples of Jains.


  • Udaiyagiri
  • Hathigumpa
  • Girnar
  • Saravanabelagola
  • Kazhugumala
  • The statue of Gomatheswara at Saravanabelgola is at Karnataka



  • Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism
  • The original name was Siddhartha
  • Lived during 563 B.C. – 483 B.C.
  • Born at Kapilavastu in Nepal
  • Father, Siddhodana belonged to the Sakya dynasty
  • Mother, Mayadevi died at the seventh day of his birth
  • Got married at the age of 16
  • Siddhartha, who was enlightened under a pipal tree at Gaya became Buddha.
  • The meaning of the word ‘Buddha’ is a person who knows what is good, what is bad and what is suffering.


  • Life is full of miseries
  • We should strive to overcome the sorrows by not being greedy
  • Not telling lies and not harming others.
  • Right speech and right livelihood
  • Opposed caste discrimination
  • Buddha’s principles on suffering are the Four Noble Truths
  • The principles of conduct are the ‘Eight Fold Paths

The Four Noble Truths are


  • Life is full of sorrow
  • Desire is the cause of sorrow
  • Sorrow can be ended by giving up desire
  • The eightfold path is the way to end sorrow


Eight – Fold Paths to overcome desire:

  • Right belief
  • Right speech
  • Right living
  • Right effort
  • Right thought
  • Right action
  • Right meditation

Buddhist monks

  • The organization of the monks was called as ‘Sangam’
  • The most important followers among King was Ashoka.

Jainism and Buddhism were at their zenith till the 6th century. Buddhism split into Hinayana and Mahayana


Accepted Buddha’s principles. No idol worship


Worshipped Buddha as God. Idol worship

even today Buddhism is followed in Ceylon, Burma, Tibet, China, Japan and Thailand. The kings who followed Buddhism Ashoka, Kanishka and Harsha

Historical Monuments

  • The Jataka tales Describes the history of Buddhism. The Jataka stories are depicted at Gaya, Sanchi and Burcut, Ajantha and Ellora Cave paintings, which are in Aurangabad at Maharastra describe the fame of Buddha
  • Gandhara art also belongs to Buddhism
  • The prayer halls of the Buddhist monks are called Chaityas. Their monasteries are called Viharas, They are of rock cut structures


The Buddhist religious texts are called Tripitakas.

  • Vinaya Pitaka
  • SuttaPitaka
  • Abhidamma Pitaka

Manimekalai and Kundalakesi are Buddhist literature.

The books are written by Jain monks

  • Sillapathikaram, Nannool (Grammar)
  • Chivagacinthamani; Vallayapathi (Literature)
  • Religious text: Angas and Purvas.


A book of Sri Lanka says that Tripitakas was written during the reign of Vattakkamini AbayanIn Pali language it is called as Tripitaka which means three baskets. Water cannot enter into a constructed house; Evil thoughts cannot enter into the hearts of those who have good thoughts. –    Buddha.

Ancient Tamil Nadu


The Vedic Period


  • Aryans migrated to India through the Khyber and Bolan passes from central Asia.
  • The places where they settled in India was called Arya Vardham
  • Compiled the prayers of their ancestors as Vedas
  • In History, this was called the Vedic Age

Classified into two

  • Early Vedic Age
  • Later Vedic Age.


Early Vedic Age

  • When Rig Veda was compiled the Aryans lived in Sindu
  • They settled in Sabta Sindhu (The Land of Seven Rivers) in Punjab
  • Through the Rig Veda, the political and social conditions of the Aryans can be known.

The Social life of Aryans

Political Life

  • The basic unit of the society was family
  • Families joined and formed the village which was headed by the Grahmini.
  • Villages formed Visa. (Vis)
  • Vishwapathy was the head of the Visu.
  • Next higher administrative unit was Jana
  • Head of Jana was Rajan (King).
  • Person who had valour and strength became the Raja
  • People lived in the kingdom were Rajas
  • The king was called Prajapathi.
  • Kingship became hereditary
  • Many chieftains formed the Mahajanapadas
  • There were two Assemblies called Saba and Samiti
  • Sabha – Group of Elders
  • Samiti – Representatives of People

Social Life

  • Father was the head of the family.
  • Women were on par with men
  • In the field of education and religion
  • There were women poets like Vishwawara, Abala, Kosa, and Lobamuthra
  • Caste system was not in existence.
  • Monogamy and Polygamy were in practice
  • Widows’ remarriage was permitted.

Economic Life

  • Cattle rearing and agriculture were the main occupations of the people during Rig Vedic Age
  • Iron was used to make tools and instruments.
  • They destroyed the forests and made them into cultivable lands.
  • Carpentry and weaving were also their occupations.
  • They produced cotton and woollen clothes
  • Goldsmiths made ornaments and potters made pots for household use
  • The barter system was in practice.
  • Rivers were used for transportation
  • Their unit of currency Nishka, made of gold.


  • They had wheat, barley, milk, curd, ghee, vegetables.
  • They drank intoxicating drinks like ‘Soma’ and ‘Sura’

Dresses and ornaments

The Aryans used clothes made of cotton and wool

  • Men wore dhoti and shawl.
  • They also wore turbans
  • Women wore upper garments and lower garments.
  • Wore earrings, necklaces, bangles, anklets and wore bands on their foreheads.



  • The Aryans worshipped the forces of nature such as Sun, fire, air, sky and trees.
  • They also worshipped Indira, Varna, Agni and Yaman.
  • There was neither temple nor idol worship in the early Vedic age
  • Religious sacrifices were practised
  • They wrote religious principles and their explanations
  • Yagas like Ashvamedha, Rajasuya and Vajapaya were conducted during poojas. I best IAS notes

Later Vedic Period: (BC 1000- BC 600)

  • The period of Sama Veda, Atharvana Veda, Yajur Veda are called the Later Vedic Period
  • Aryans spread over the eastern side.
  • Pre Vedic Aryans spread from Kabul to Upper Ganges
  • During this period the kingdoms emerge
  • During this period B r a h m ann an s , Up an n in sh a d s a n d Aranyakas were also written


Political Life

  • Kingdoms like Kosala, Videham, Kuru, Magadha, Kasi, Avanthi and Panchala emerged
  • Kingship became hereditary.
  • Sacrifices such as Rajasuya and Ashvamedha were performed to establish his undisputed authority.
  • Saba and Samithi declined


Economic Life

  • Metal widely used was iron
  • Handicrafts improved
  • They grew paddy, sugarcane, barley and wheat.
  • Cow dung was used as manure
  • Cattle wealth developed.
  • Caste system became rigid which was called Varna Dharma.
  • Who performed sacrifices and religious ceremonies were called Brahmans
  • The Vaishyas were the traders and farmers.

Status of women

  • No improvement in the status of women
  • They were subordinate to men.
  • They did not inherit property
  • Deprived of administrative power.
  • Child marriage was prevalent
  • Sati, according to which the widow would throw herself into the funeral pyre of her husband was in practice.



  • Brahmin students stayed in the Gurukul
  • There were highly educated women like Gargi and Maitreyi.
  • Royal children alone were taught Danur Veda (military strategy).



  • The prevedic Gods lost their importance
  • In this period, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra (Siva) gained importance.
  • Rituals and animal sacrifices gained importance
  • Rituals and animal sacrifices gained importance
  • People had faith in soul, fate and moksha
  • Against these meaningless rituals and costly sacrifices, Buddhism and Jainism originated.

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Jainism and Buddhism





  • Mauryan Empire

  • Kushana Empire

  • The Gupta Empire



Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

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  • In 1 921, archaeologists found out that it was the ancient city of India.
  • Harappa in Sindhi means ‘Buried City’.
  • This civilization flourished in India about 4700 years ago.

The Great Bath:


  • The most important structure found in the citadel was the Great Bath.
  • There were steps on both the sides of the pool
  • There were rooms on all the sides of the pool for changing clothes.
  • Fed by water from a well and the dirty water was emptied by a huge drain.



  • Houses were built in the grid system
  • Houses which had two rooms
  • Multi-storeyed houses, public hall, granary and public buildings built out of bricks.
  • No windows in the houses.
  • They had a well and a bathroom.
  • There were dustbins in front of the houses


Town Planning:

  • The northern part of the town was narrow and elevated.
  • The excavators considered that those were constructed on the security basis.
  • The eastern side was broad and lowered


Applied Science

  • The science and technology such as construction
  • Selections of lands
  • Measurement of plots
  • Foundation, selection of quality building materials & Geometrical figures were in use


Drainage system:

  • The drains from the houses were covered.
  • They ran along the sides of the streets which were connected to the street drains.
  • They had manholes at regular intervals for cleaning


  • The public drainage system
  • The Great Bath
  • The public hall
  • The street lights
  • The provisions of dustbins show that the administrative system was well organized.



  • There would have been workers like
  • Document writers,
  • Seal maker
  • Carpenters
  • Dollmakers
  • Masons and other artisans
  • Dolls made out of terracotta
  • They used copper and bronze to make weapons
  • Weights were made out of a kind of stone.


Terracotta seals:


  • Hundreds of rectangular seals were discovered here
  • Pictographic writings were written on them
  • The script had not been deciphered yet.
  • Bulls, cart, dove, boats and a figure of a human meditating are seen



  • Terracotta planks discovered here were engraved with letters
  • They were pictographic writing
  • These writings are related with the ancient Tamil writings.



  • Agriculturists
  • Artisans
  • Traders
  • Potters
  • Blacksmiths
  • Agriculture was their main occupation, they cultivated wheat and barley, stored the surplus grains in the granary


  • People wore cotton and woollen dresses
  • Men wore a garment similar to the ‘dhoti
  • Shawl as an upper garment


To make ornaments they used

  • Gold
  • Silver
  • Ivory
  • Precious stones



  • Experts in making pots out of terracotta
  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female,
  • The figures of birds, animals, images of male and female,
  • Pots and bowls were discovered



  • The statue of a dancing girl made out of bronze found in Mohenjo-Daro
  • Statue of a man with beard made out of limestone are examples of the excellent sculptures



  • The articles excavated in Mohenjo-Daro tell us about their religious Practices
  • they worshipped Lord Shiva represented as Pasupath
  • Mother Goddess, Lingam, Trident and trees.


Causes for the decline of the towns:


  • Wooden articles would have got destroyed by fire
  • Rivalry because of the civil war
  • Natural calamities and the change in the course of River Indus would have buried things.
  • The Aryans would have destroyed these towns in order to succeed
  • The heap of bones discovered in Mohenjo-Daro is evidence of the invasion of the foreigners



The Vedic Period



Prehistoric Period


The Pre-historic period can be classified as:


  • Palaeolithic Age – Old Stone Age (BC 1 0000 years ago)
  • Neolithic Age- New Stone Age (BC 10000 -BC 4000)
  • Chalcolithic Age- Copper Stone Age (BC 3000-BC 1 500)
  • Iron Age – Iron Age (BC 1500-BC600)

An era of some important events


  • The beginning of the Earth -4.6 Billion years ago
  • The appearance of man – 4000 years ago (Homosepians)
  • The beginning of the city’s -4700 years ago


Old Stone Age: (Palaeolithic Age)

  • They were nomad
  • They discovered fire by using the flint stone.

New Stone Age: (Neolithic Age)

  • The first animal they tamed was dog.
  • They used polished, carved, sharp stone weapons.
  • The wheel was invented.
  • Copper was the first metal used by them.

Places in India where the Old Stone Age tools were found:

  • Pimpet Ca, Mageshwa
  • Rajasthan – Luni Valley
  • Karnataka – Pagalkha
  • Andhrapradesh – Kurnool caves
  • Tamilnadu – Vadamadurai, Athirambakkam, Pallavaram, Kanchipuram, Vellur, Thiruvallur

Copper Age: (Chalcolithic Age)

  • They made tools out of copper as well as small stones.
  • They drew colourful pictures with geometrical patterns
  • The Harappan culture belonged to this age

Iron Age

The period when the tools were made up of iron was called Iron Age.


Indus Valley Civilization