NAGARA-TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

NAGARA-TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE

The Nagara or North Indian Temple Architecture:

Basic form of a Hindu temple:

  1. Garbhagriha:
  • It literally means‘womb-house’and is a cave like sanctum.
  • The Garbhagriha is made to housethe main icon (main deity)which is itself the focus of much ritual attention.
  1. Mandapa:
  • It is theentranceto the temple.
  • It may be a portico or colonnaded (series of columns placed at regular intervals) hall that incorporate space for a large number of worshippers.
  • Dances and such other entertainments are practiced here.
  • Some temples have multiple mandapas in different sizes named asArdhamandapa, Mandapa and Mahamandapa.
  1. Shikhara or Vimana:
  • They aremountain like spire of a free standingtemple.
  • Shikharais found in North Indian temples and Vimana is found in South Indian temples.
  • Shikharahas a curving shape while vimana has a pyramidal like structure.
  1. Amalaka:
  • It is a stone disc like structure at thetop of the templeand they are common in North Indian temples.
  1. Kalasha:
  • It is thetopmost point of the templeand commonly seen in North Indian temples.
  1. Antarala (vestibule):
  • Antarala is a transition area between the Garbhagriha and the temple’s main hall (mandapa).
  1. Jagati:
  • It is araised platform for sitting and praying and is common in NorthIndian temples.
  1. Vahana:
  • It is the mount or vehicle of the temple’s main deity along with a standard pillar or Dhvaj which is placed axially before the sanctum.

Classification of Indian Temples

Indian temples can be classified into two broad orders as

  1. Nagara(in North India)

           2.Dravida (in South India)

  1. the Vesarastyle of temples as an independent style created through the mixing of Nagara and Dravida orders.

Sculptures, Iconography and Ornamentation :

  • Iconography is a branch of art history whichstudies the images of deities.
  • It consists of identification of image based on certain symbols and mythology associated with them.
  • The temple is covered with elaborate sculptures and ornament that form a fundamental part of its conception.

The Nagara or North Indian Temple Architecture :

  • It is common here to build an entire temple on a stone platform with steps leading up to it.
  • Unlike in south India, it doesn’t usually have elaborate boundary walls or gateways.
  • Earliest temples had only one shikhara (tower), but in the later periods, multiple shikharas came.
  • The garbha griha is always located directly under the tallest tower.

There are many subdivisions of nagara temples depending on the shape of the shikhara:

  1. Latina/ Rekha-Prasada:
  • It is the simple and most common type of shikhara.
  • It is square at the base and the walls curve or slope inwards to a point on top.
  • Latina types are mainly used for housing the garbhagriha.

  1. Phamsana type shikhara:
  • They are broader and shorter than Latina type.
  • Their roof is composed of several slabs that gently rise to a single point over the centre of the building, unlike the Latina ones which looks like sharply rising towers.
  • Phamsana roofs do not curve inwards; instead, they slope upward on a straight incline.
  • In many north Indian temples, the phamsana type is used for mandapas while the main garbhagriha is housed in a Latina building.

  1. Valabhi type shikhara:
  • These are rectangular building with a roof that rises into a vaulted chamber.
  • The edge of the vaulted chamber is round, like the bamboo or wooden wagons that would have been drawn by bullocks in ancient times.
  • The form of this temple is influenced by ancient building forms that were already in existence.

We can also classify the Nagara Temples on the basis of the region as follows:

Central India:

  • In the later periods, the temples grew from simple four pillared structures to the large complex.
  • This means that similar developments were incorporated in the architecture of temples of both the religions.
  • Two such temples that survive are; temple at Udaygiri which is on the outskirts of Vidisha (it is a part of a large Hindu temple complex) and a temple at Sanchi, which was a Buddhist site.
  • The ancient temples in UP, MP, and Rajasthan share many traits and the most visible is that they are made of Sandstone.
  1. Dashavatara Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, UP:

 

  • Even though the patrons and donors of the temple are unknown, it is believed that this temple was built in the early 6th century CE.
  • This is a classic example of the late Gupta period.
  • This temple is in thePanchayatanastyle of architecture. [Panchayatana is an architectural style where the main shrine is built on a rectangular plinth with four smaller subsidiary shrines at the four corners and making it a total of five shrines – i.e., Pancha]
  • There are 3 main reliefs of Vishnu on the temple walls.
  • The temple depicts Vishnu in various forms due to which it was assumed that the four subsidiary shrines must also house Vishnu’s avatars and the temple was mistaken for a dashavatara temple.
  1. Temples at Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh:
  • The temples at Khajuraho were made in the 10th century, about 400 years after the temple at Deogarh and the complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • The temples were patronized, by Chandela kings.
  • The temples at Khajuraho are all made of Sandstone.
  • The largest temple at Khajuraho is theKandariya Mahadeva temple which is attributed toking Ganda.
  • The Lakshmana temple dedicated to Vishnu was built in 954 by Chandela king, Dhanga.
  • All the towers or shikhara of the temple rise high, upward in a curved pyramidal fashion, emphasizing the temple’s vertical thrust ending in a horizontal fluted disc called an Amalaka topped with a Kalasha or a vase.
  • The crowning element Kalasha and Amalaka are to be found on all nagara temples of this period.
  • The Khajuraho temples are also known for their extensive erotic sculptures (about 10% of total sculptures); the erotic expression gives equal importance in human experience as a spiritual pursuit, and it is seen as a part of the larger cosmic whole.
  • Many Hindu temples, therefore feature Mithun   (embracing couples-erotic sculptures) sculptures, considered auspicious.
  • [Khajuraho dance festival is organized by MP Kala Parishad and is one week long (first week of February) festival of classical dances celebrated annually against the spectacular backdrop of Khajuraho]

West India :

  • There are too numerous temples in the northwestern parts of India, including Gujarat and Rajasthan, and stylistically extendable, at times, to western Madhya Pradesh.
  • The stones to build temples ranges in color and type.
  • While sandstone is the commonest, a grey to black basalt can be seen in some of the 10th to 12thcentury temple sculptures.
  • Among the most important art historical sites in the region isSamlaji in Gujarat.
  • A large number of sculptures made of grey schist have been found in this region.
  1. Sun Temple, Modhera, Gujarat:



  • The temple dates back to the early 11th century and was built by raja Bhimdev I of the Solanki dynasty.
  • The Solanki were a branch of later Chalukyas.
  • There is a massive rectangular stepped tank called Surya Kundin front of it.
  • The hundred square meter rectangular pond is perhaps the grandest temple tank in India.
  • A hundred and eight miniature shrines are carved in between the steps inside the tank.

East India :

  • East Indian temples include those found in the North-East, Bengal, and Odisha and each of these three areas produces a distinct type of temple.
  • It appears that terracotta was the main medium of construction.

Assam:

  • An old 6th century sculpted door frame from DaParvatia near Tezpur and another few stray sculptures from Rangagora Tea Estate near Tinsukia in Assam bear witness to the import of the Gupta idiom in that region.
  • The post-Gupta style continued in the region well in the 10th
  • However, by the 12th to 14th centuries, a distinct regional style developed in Assam.
  • The style that came with the migration of theTaisfrom upper Burma mixed with the dominant Pala style of Bengal and led to the creation of what was later known as the Ahom style in and aroundGuwahati.

Bengal:

  • The style of sculptures during the period between the 9th and 11th centuries in Bengal (including Bangladesh) and Bihar is known as the Pala style, named after the ruling dynasty at that time.
  • That style in the mid 11th and mid 13th centuries is named after the Sena kings.
  • The Siddheswara Mahadeva temple in Burdwan, W.B, built in the 9th century, shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka, is an example of early Pala style.
  • Many of the temples from 9th to 12th centuries were located at Telkupi in Puruta district, W.B.
  • They were submerged when dams were constructed in the region.
  • The architecture of these temples heavily influenced the earliest Bengal Sultanate buildings at Gaur and Pandya.
  • Many local vernacular building traditions of Bengal also influenced the style of the temple in that region.
  • The most prominent of these was the shape of the sloping or curving side of the bamboo roof of a Bengali hut.
  • This feature was eventually even adopted in Mughal buildings and is known as across India as the Bangla Roof (word Bungalow derived from this).

Odisha (Kalinga Architecture):

The main architectural features of Odisha temples are classified in three orders:

  1. Rekhapida/ Rekha deula/ rathaka deula:
  •      Rekha means line and it is a tall straight building with a shape of the sugar loaf. It covers the garbhagriha.
  1. Pidhadeula:
  • It is a square building with a pyramid-shaped roof and is mainly found for housing the outer dancing and offering halls.
  1. Khakradeula:
  • It is a rectangular building with a truncated pyramid shaped roof. Temples of the female deities are usually in this form (garbhagriha usually) and will have a resemblance with Dravidian temples of the south.
  • The temples of Odisha constitute a distinct substyle within nagara order.
  • In general, here the Shikhara called Deul in Odisha is vertical almost until the top when it suddenly curves sharply inwards.
  • Mandapas in Odisha are called Jagamohanas.
  1. Sun temple, Konark, Odisha:
  • It is built around 1240 on the shores of the Bay of Bengal.
  • The temple is set on a high base, its walls covered in extensive, detailed ornamental carving.
  • These include 12 pairs of enormous wheels sculpted with spokes and hubs, representing the chariot wheels of the sun God who, in mythology, rides a chariot driven by 8 horses, sculpted here at the entrance staircase.
  1. Jagannatha temple, Puri, Odisha:
  • It is also located on the eastern coast, at Puri, Odisha.
  • The temple is apart of Char Dham(Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram) pilgrimages that a Hindu is expected to make in one’s lifetime.
  • When most of the deities in the temples of India are made of stone or metal, the idol of Jagannatha is made of wood which is ceremoniously replaced in every twelve or nineteen years by using sacred trees.
  • The temple is believed to be constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty.
  • The temple is famous for its annual Ratha Yatra or Chariot festival.

Child Labour

Child Labour

“India id the largest, child labour force market in the world. The Problem of child labour in India is of colossal proportions. The notion that children are being exploited and forced into labour, while not receiving education crucial to development, concerns many people India is the largest example plagued by the problem of child labour”.

The problem of child labour exploitation is a major challenge to the progress of developing countries. Children work at the cost of their right to education which leaves them permanently trapped in the poverty cycle, without the education and literacy required for better-paying jobs. This is particularly serious in India as it tops the list with the highest number of child labours in the world. The 2001 national census of India as it tops the list with the highest number of child labourers, aged 5-14 to be at 12.6 million. Out of the 12.6 million, 0.12 million engaged in hazardous jobs. However, according to informal labour force statistics, the problem seems to be more severe than reflected. Child labour is estimated to be as large as 60 million in India as many children are hidden worker of working in homes or in the underground economy. In the long run, this phenomenon will evolve to be both a social and an economic problem as economic disparities widen between the poor and educationally backward states and that of the faster-growing states. India has the highest number of labourers in the world less than 14 years of age. Although the Constitution of India guarantees free and compulsory education to children between the age of 6 to 14 years and prohibits employment of children younger than 14 in any hazardous environment, child labour is prevalent in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.

Child labour supports the source of income of the poor. A study conducted by the ILO Bureau of Statistics found that Children’s Work was considered essential in maintaining the economic level of households, either in the form of work for Wages, or help in household enterprises or of household chores in order to free adult household members for economic activity elsewhere some cases, the study found that a child’s income accounted for between 34 and 37% of the total household income. This study concludes that a child labourer’s income is important to the livelihood of a poor family.

The fact that child labourers are being exploited is clear from a study that shows that children for the same type of work are paid less than their adult counterparts. Although 39.5% of employers said that child workers earn wages equal to adults, if the percentage of employers admitting that wages are lower for children are added up, a figure of 35.9% is found. The percentage of the population of India living in poverty is quite high. Poverty has an obvious relationship with child labour and studies have revealed a positive correlation as such. Poor families need money to survive, and children are a source of additional income.

The twin factors are (1) poverty and (2) the lack of a social security network from the basis of the worst type of bonded child labour. For the poor, there are few sources of bank loans, governmental loans or other credit sources, and even if sources are available, few of them living in poverty qualify or they hesitate to go for any loans for fear that a bride may be demanded or owing to fear of penalty if unable to pay the loan. Here enter the local moneylenders (Human Rights Watch 1996). Since the earnings of bonded child labourers are less than the interest on the loans, theses bonded children are forced to work, while interest on their loans, these bonded children are forced to work, a lump sum payment, which is extremely difficult for the poor.

Though poverty is one of the basic causes of child labour, it is not the only factor. Inadequate school facilities or even the expense of schooling leaves them with little else to do but work. The attitudes of parents also contribute to child labour. Some parents feel that children should work in order to develop skills useful, in the job market, instead of wasting time in formal education.

Since independence, India has committed itself to be against child labour. Article 24 of the Indian Constitution clearly states that “No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment”. Article 39(e) Directs State Policy such that, “the health and strength of workers… and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizen is not forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age or strength”. These two Articles show that India has always had the goal of taking care of its children and ensuring the safety of workers. The Bonded Labour System Act of 1976 fulfils the Indian Constitution’s directive of Vending forced labour. The Act” frees all bonded labourers, cancels any outstanding debts against them, prohibits the creation of new bondage agreements, and orders the economic rehabilitation of freed bonded labourers by the state.” In regard to child labour, the Indian government enacted the Child Labour Act in 1986. The purpose of this act is to “prohibit the employment of children who have not completed their 14th year in specified hazardous occupations and processes”. This shows that the government of India running the Government themselves own the factories where children are exploited.

The most comprehensive of all child labour laws passed in India is the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 (CLPRA). The beginnings of this Act could be traced to a non-governmental organization based in Bengaluru, India. This group argued that “poverty was the main cause of child labour and that, therefore, the attempt should be to regulate the conditions under which children work rather than ‘prohibit such work.” This argument resulted in widespread discussions between two groups of activists. While one supported the regulation of child labour, the other insisted that prohibition would be the only solution to the problem. Prior to the creation of the Act, “the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Bill was introduced in both houses of Parliament” with the following statement of objects and reason.

There are a number of Acts which prohibit the employment of children below 14 years and 15 years in certain specified employments. However, there is no procedure laid down in any law for deciding in which employment, occupations or processes the employment of children should be banned. There is no law to regulate the Working conditions of children in most of the employment where they are not prohibited from working and are under exploitative conditions.

The introduction of this Bill generated a debate in the Indian Parliament with some members voicing their apprehensions and reservations with regards to different aspects of the Bill. Even so, the CLPRA was passed in 1986, and it continues to be the principal enactment on the issue of employment of children. This Act does not call for an outright ban on child labour but instead permits employment of children in industries that are not specified in the Act. Although the Act has been criticized for the above reason, it must be noted that the attempt to contextually address the problem of child labour in India is evident in this Act.

The problem of illiteracy is also one of the reasons for the problem of child labour. It has been observed that “the overall condition of the education system can be a powerful influence on the supply of child labour Dropout rates measured by the department of education show that 35 % of meals and 39% of females dropout. The concept of compulsory education, where all school-aged children are required to attend school, combats the force of poverty that pulls children out of school. Policies relating to compulsory education not only force children to attend school but also contribute appropriate funds to the primary education system instead of higher education.

To make state’s children attain requisite skills to become independent successful persons in life, the government has taken an important initiative in the form of right to education. It has come to force from 1st April 2010. It makes education as a claimable right for the child and provides provisions so that every child may get an opportunity to attain education. This is meant to be a serious blow to child labour as children have been given a fundamental right, with validation challengeable in the courts. This step could positively lead to the empowerment of Indian children.

The problem of child labour still remains even though all of these policies are existent. Enforcement is the key aspect that is lacking in the government’s efforts. No enforcement data for child labour laws are available. “A glaring sign of neglect of their duties by officials charged with enforcing child labour laws is the failure to collect, maintain and disseminate accurate statistics regarding enforcement efforts”. Although the lack of data does not mean enforcement is non-existent, the number of child labourers and their work participation rates show that enforcement is existent but ineffective.

The problem of child labour has social, economic and political faces. It cannot be eliminated by focusing on one determinant, e.g. education or by brute enforcement of child labour laws. The government of India must ensure that the needs of the poor are filled before eliminating child labour. If poverty is eradicated, the need for child labour will automatically diminish. No matter how hard India tries, child labour always will exist unless the policymakers and beaurucracy start honestly working in this direction. The development of India as a nation is being hampered by child labour, Children are growing up illiterate because they have been working and not attending school. A cycle of poverty is formed and the need for child labour is reborn after every generation. India needs to address the problem by tackling the underlying causes of child labour through governmental policies and with the coordination and cooperation of the NGOs and the enforcement of these policies honesty in the true spirit. Without wiping out the causes permanently, we cannot eradicate the typical problems of child labour will automatically say goodbye to India.

RTE-2010 – An Overview

RTE-2010 – An Overview

“I beg to place the following resolution before the council for its consideration.

The State should accept in this country the same responsibility in regard to mass education that the government of most civilized countries are already discharging and that a well-considered scheme should be drawn up and adhered to till it is carried out. The well being of millions upon millions of children who are waiting to be brought under the influence education depends upon it.”                                                                                                                                 Gopal Krishna Gokhale

 

 

The above words are part of the resolution which moved in the Imperial Legislative Council on 18th March 1910 for seeking provision of ‘Free and compulsory Primary Education” in India.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act came into force from April 1, 2010. This is was a historic day for the people of India as from this day the right to education will be accorded the same legal status as the right to file as provided by Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. Every child in the age group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of elementary education in an age-appropriate classroom in the vicinity of his/her neighbourhood. Any cost that prevents a child from accessing school will be borne by the State which shall have the responsibility of enrolling the child as well as ensuring attendance and completion of 8 years of schooling. No child shall be denied admission for want of documents; no child shall be turned away if the admission cycle in the school is over and no child shall be asked to take an admission test. Children with disabilities will also be educated in the mainstream schools. The Prime Minister Shri Manmohan Singh has emphasized that it is important for the country that if we nurture our children and young people with the right education, India’s future as a strong and prosperous country is secure.

Following are the key points of the legislation that expects to empower the nation through education:

  1. Free and compulsory education to all children of India in the 6 to 14 age group;
  2. No child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until completion of

elementary education (up to class 8);

  1. A child who completes elementary education (up to Class 8) shall be awarded a certificate
  2. Calls for a fixed student-teacher ratio;
  3. Will apply to all India except Jammu and Kashmir;
  4. Provides for 25 per cent reservation for economically disadvantaged communities in all private and minority schools. The reservation to start with Class one beginning 2011.
  1. Mandates improvement in the quality of education;
  2. School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose the job;
  3. School infrastructure (where there is the problem) to be improved in three years, else recognition   cancelled;
  1. The financial burden will be shared between the state and the central government on the basis of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (Education for All)
  1. Private schools to face a penalty for violating RTE.

Challengers ahead

  • The funds required to implement the RTE act of Rs. 171, 000 crores.
  • 5 lakhs more trained teachers required.
  • Playgrounds for every school are the basic needs.

UNESCO and UNICEF applauding the ground-breaking Right to Education Act, legalizing the right to free and compulsory education for all children between the ages of 6 to 14 in India. “RTE will to a quality education and a brighter future.”

There are an estimated eight million India children and young people between the ages of six to 14 out-of-school, the majority of whom are girls. Without India, the world cannot reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of having every child complete primary school by 2015.

“This act is an essential step towards improving each child’s accessibility to secondary and higher education, bringing India closer to achieving national educational development goals, as well as the MDGs and Education for All (EFA),” said UNESCO New Delhi Director Armoogum Parsuramen, commending in particular the Ministry’s commitment to implementing the actin collaboration with the state governments. “UNESCO places the right to education at the heart of its mission and stands ready to accompany all partners in their efforts to ensure its successful implementation.”

Free education is often meant to imply waiver of tuition fees. But tuition fee is only a part of educational expense and poor families are often not able to raise other expenses needed for educational and support materials for disabled children (hearing aids, spectacles, Braille books, crutches and so on), or even library fee, laboratory fee etc. which are not covered under tuition fee. The phenomenon of drop-outs, in particular, is related to the inability of parents to meet the educational expense of their children, often daughters, somewhere during the course of elementary education. This is a landmark Act towards future India.

 

 

Panchayati Raj and Rural Development – by IAS NEXT team ( IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in lucknow)

Panchayati Raj and Rural Development

“India is poor because its villages are poor India will be rich if the villages are rich. Panchayats should be given greater power for we want the villagers to have a greater measure of real swaraj [self-government] in their own villages”. Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India Recognizing the importance of Panchayati Raj, Article 40 (Directive Principles of State Policy of our Constitution) states, “The State shall take steps to organise village Panchayats” and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of local self-government, 24th April, 1993 is a red-letter day in the history of Panchayati Raj in India as on this day the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1.992 came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions.

“For India to build a broad-based, solid foundation for economic and social progress, it must uproot the vestiges of feudalism and instil democratic values and practices. The people who live in India’s 750000 villages must become the authors of their own lives and women must be respected and supported as equal partners in the process of During the days of Aryans, Indian villages had a unique institution as equally called Panchayat, a very powerful, well accepted and almost independent institution. After independence, all possible measures were taken to revive the Panchayat Raj Institutions in order to involve the rural people not only in their own development but also in the development but also in the development of the nation as a whole. Gandhiji was of the opinion that for actual development of the country, every village has to be self-reliant and capable of managing its affairs. According to him, a Gram Panchayats should be entrusted even with the dispensation of justice. The poor villagers need not go into the courts, spend hard earned with the dispensation of justice. The poor villagers need not go into the courts, spend hard earned money and waste weeks and months in towns for litigation.

Salient Features of the Act

  • To provide a 3-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all States.
  • To hold Panchayat elections regularly every 5 years.
  • To provide reservation of seats for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women (not less than 33%).
  • To appoint State Finance Commission to make recommendations as regards the financial powers of the Panchayats.
  • To constitute District Planning Committee to preparing draft development plans for the district as a Whole.

Power and Responsibilities

According to the Constitution, Panchayats shall be given powers and authority to functions institutions of self-government. The following powers and are to be delegated to Panchayats at the appropriate level. Preparation of plan for economic development and social justice. Implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice in relation to 29 Subjects given in Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. To levy, collect and appropriate taxes, duties, tolls and fees.

The history of Panchayati Raj has been one of success and failure in different states. There was a phase of success during 1959-64 a phase of stagnation during 1956-69 and a phase of failure during 1969-77. In the State of Maharashtra and Gujarat, the Panchayati-Raj has shown a good scene of success and took planning and development schemes sincerely.

This Act gives constitutional status to the Gram Sabha. According to Article 234 (B) of the Constitution, Gram Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls of a village within the area of Gram Panchayat. As per Article 243 (A), a Gram Sabha may exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level. as the legislature of a state may, by law, provide. Accordingly, all villagers over 18 years of age, have an inherent right to determine their own destiny. This is the forum where even a poor villager can make his presence felt.

Gram Sabha plays very important role in the functioning of the Gram Panchayats in ensuring transparency in the working, and equitable distribution of benefits in the creation of community assets and bringing about social involvement in the developmental process.

On 24th December 1996, the Panchayat network has been extended to the tribal areas of the country. The provisions of the Panchayats (extension to the scheduled areas) Act, 1996, extends Panchayats to the tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa & Rajasthan. A Conference of Ministers of Panchayati Raj of the States was held on 11th July 2001, in New Delhi, to discuss and analyse the progress in ‘respect to the devolution of power upon Panchayats & to find out the steps needed to make the Panchayats emerge as real Institutions of self-government’. The necessity of times-bound & regular election to Panchayats, completion of the devotion of powers with regard to the 29 Subjects listed in the Eleventh Schedule & the constitution of the district planning committee was felt.

On an average, a Panchayat covers two to three villages and a population of approximately 2400. There are 4526 Panchayat Samities at the Block/Tehsil level. There are 330 Zila parishads covering about 76% of the district in the country and each Zila Parishad has, on an average, 13-14 Panchayat Samitief and about 660 Gram Panchayats. If all these units become active and sincerely plan for the real development of the villages, there is no reason that the villages do not make rapid progress. The Institution of Panchayati Raj-enshrines the villages as model units for the development. It is the foundation on which lies the fortress of democracy. The success of Panchayati Raj depends.

In this process of social transformation, there may be some negative unintended consequences-sub-optimal utilization of, resources, weakening of other bodies of governance… not all these will automatically mean empowerment of women or engendering of the PRIs.

Much more will be needed if gender justice is to become the norm. And it will take time. We must not be in the patient. But, it is important to support this fledgeling experiment in every way we can if we believe in democracy at the grass-root level.

A very peculiar thing is being observed that in spite of lot of powers given at the grass-roots level, the actual development Work is not being carried out. Corruption and group are at the village level, casteism, nepotism, in creating community assets, is gradually becoming rampant. A lot of is to be done in the fields of education, health, family, planning, land improvement, Institutions, sanitation, animal husbandry etc., but instead of concentrating on development activities the elected representatives are found busy in cornering the money for their personal interest, and benefiting the in caste men or other fellows which directly or indirectly serve their vested interest, If the evils of corruption, caste are group etc. allowed to penetrate to the grass-roots-level, the whole system of Panchayati Raj Will collapse one day and it shall be most disastrous to the democratic values envisaged in adopting the Panchayati Raj Institutions.

by :IAS NEXT 

Abolition of Untouchability: by IAS NEXT( IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in lucknow)

Abolition of Untouchability

by IAS NEXT( IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in Lucknow)

Abolition of Untouchability

“Untouchability” is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.”                                                               –Art. 17 Indian Constitution

 

The Constitution of India has special provisions dealing with the abolition of Untouchability. Central Legislation exists in the form of the Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Prevention of Atrocities Act 1989. In colleges and universities and in state employment positive discrimination exists and a percentage of seats and jobs are reserved for those from the socially and economically backward sections of society.

It may not be inappropriate in this context to recall what Gandhi feelingly said on one occasion on the subject. He said: “I do not want to be reborn, but if I am reborn, I wish that I would be reborn as a Harijan, as an untouchable, so that I may lead a continuous struggle against the oppression and indignities that have been heaped upon these classes of people”.

With the epic fast of Mahatma Gandhi in 1932 in protest against the “communal award” by which the Scheduled Castes were to be given a separate electorate, a vigorous movement against untochablitity was launched on a national basis. Solemn pledges were taken by many members of the Indian National Congress and others that untouchability would no longer find any asylum in the country.

The movement brought forth some good results. Many temples were thrown open and the rigours of untouchability had become a thing of the past at least in the urban centers of the country. But the evil of untouchablitity still lingered in many forms and in many parts of the country. Speaking on the Untouchability Offences Bill, which was passed into the very vitals of our society. It is not only a blot on the Hindu religion, but it has created intolerance, sectionalism and fissiparous tendencies. Many of the evils that we find in our society today are traceable to this heinous monstrosity.

It was really strange that Hindus with their sublime philosophy and their merciful kind-heartedness even towards insects should have been party to such intolerable dwarfing of manhood. Yet, untouchability has been there for centuries and we have now to atone for it. The idea of untouchability is entirely repugnant to the structure, spirit and provisions of the Constitution.”

The Untouchability Offences Act came into force in June 1955. In one sense it may be said to be said to be an expansion of Article 15 of the Constitution. The Act intended to make the enforcement of any disability against the Scheduled Castes illegal.

It provided that when the victim is a member of a Scheduled Caste, the commission of the forbidden act should be presumed to have been done on the ground of untouchability. It has laid down that whatever is open to the general public or to Hindus generally should be equally open to members of the Schedule Castes also.

Thus, for example, no shop may refuse to sell and no person may refuse to render any service to any person on the ground of untouchability. Every person is entitled to such services on the terms on which they may be obtained in the ordinary course of business by any other person.

Any refusal on that ground entails cancellation of any license required in respect of such profession. Any act which interferes in any manner with the exercise of such rights by any person was made an offence punishable with imprisonment for six months or a fine up to Rs. 500 or both. A subsequent offence is punishable with both imprisonment and fine. All offence under the Act are cognizable and may be compounded with leave of the Court.

The Untouchability Offence Act was amended in 1976 making its penal clauses more stringent. The Act has been also renamed as the Protection of Civil Rights Act. One significant new provision of the Act is that a person convicted of an untouchability offence will be disqualified for contesting the elections. It was for the first time that such a provision became a law in the history of elections in India.

In spite of the constitutional provisions, the operation of the Untouchability Offences Act and judicial pronouncements, India cannot yet claim to have rooted out the evil of untouchability completely. In the fight against social evils, legislation is only one of many weapons. People need to be educated and be aware about this malaise. So that we can think about complete eradication of untouchability from society.

prepare PCS-Jwith Sudhanshu Mishra & team

Right to privacy and social networking websites :by IAS NEXT TEAM

Right to privacy and social networking websites

The Internet has had a massive impact on many areas of personal and professional life.   Defamation laws and libel lawsuits are one such area and many individuals, and website owners have fallen foul of the belief that they can write anything about anybody when they are online. With the proliferation of social networking websites (“SNW”) and their widespread use, especially amongst the youth, one observes certain legal loopholes in their operation and use. On the one hand, while such Social Networking Websites provide an easy to use, the convenient and cost-effective way of networking, however, the flip side presents the drawback of such Social Networking Websites. One such glaring drawback is the opportunity they provide for “cyber-defamation”.

What Is A Social Networking Websites (SNW)?

 The most commonly accepted definition of Social Networking Websites, first proposed by Boyd and Ellison, defines social network sites to mean ‘web-based services that allow individuals to

  • Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system,
  • Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and
  • And traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system’.

The popularity of Social Networking Site among school students gives rise to two distinct kinds of threats to privacy. The first set of concerns relates to the disclosure of personal information by the students themselves. The first set of concerns relates to the disclosure of personal information by the students themselves. The second set of concerns, on the other hand, relates to the posting of personal information about a student by other people, including the possibility of other people altering someone’s personal information. Franks agrees, “Public comment has been unleashed by the internet to prick pomposity and to undermine those who would keep the truth to anointed insiders. It should not be warped by defamation law,”

Tow girls were arrested over their Facebook post questioning Mumbai shutting down for Shiv Sena patriarch Bal Thackeray’s funeral.

The case was booked under Section 295 (a) of the IPC (for hurting religious sentiments) and Section 64 (a) of the Information Technology Act, 2000, but was granted bail within hours after they furnished personal bonds. The session’s court accepted the police closure report seeking dropping of charges against the two girls. The arrests triggered a nationwide outrage. This should not be seen merely as ‘social media regulation”, but as a restriction on freedom of speech and expression by both the law and the police. Section 66A makes certain kinds of speech-activities illegal if communicated online, but legal if that same speech-activity is published in a newspaper. Finally, this is similar to the Aseem Trivedi case where the police wrongly decided to press charges and to arrest him for his cartoon against corruption and Politicians.

It is to be noted that intermediaries or other users of Social Networking Websites may be aware of such defamatory statements by the author on their own virtual profile. Section 79 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 gives immunity to network service providers.

Remedies:

Protection Of Websites With Media Liability Insurance

Media liability insurance can be obtained through many insurance companies and these policies are created to specifically deal with the costs of defamation through online and offline sources. These can prove to be an inexpensive way to help counteract the future problem.

One should keep in a mind the following things:

  • To prevent cyberstalking avoid disclosing any information pertaining to oneself. This is as good as disclosing your identity to strangers in public place.
  • Always avoid sending any photograph online particularly to strangers and chat friends as there have been incidents of misuse of the photographs.
  • Never send your credit card number to any site that is not secured, to guard against frauds.
  • Always keep a watch on the sites that children are accessing to prevent any kind of harassment or deprivation in children.
  • Website owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. Putting host-based intrusion detection devices on servers may do this.
  • Use of firewalls may be beneficial.
  • Web servers running sites must be physically separate protected from the internal corporate network.

BEST PCS-J COACHING FOR MAINS EXAMINATION

PREPARE JUDICIAL SERVICES EXAM WITH SUDHANSHU MISHRA & TEAM 

Supreme Court on Acid Attack- (for PCS-J mains & IAS/PCS mains paper no.2 )

Supreme Court on Acid Attack- by Sudhanshu Mishra

(for PCS-J mains & IAS/PCS mains paper no.2 )

 

The Apex Court of India has given state authorities three months to implement new rules to control over the counter sales of acids, which have been used to maim, disfigure and even kill people, particularly women, for decades.

Court has directed India’s 28 states and seven union territories to issue licenses to retailers selling acid after the government earlier this week said it will categorize acid as poison. The court said anyone under the age of 18 will not be able to purchase acids like hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric. Shops will have to keep details like the quantity sold and the addresses of buyers, who will need to present photo identification to purchase acids, the court said Thursday.

“Over the counter sale of acid is completely prohibited unless the seller maintains a log/register recording the sale of acid,” the Supreme Court said. Retailers will have to declare the amount of acid being stocked to the police, the court said. Failure to do so would lead to undeclared stock being confiscated and a fine of up to Rs. 50,000

The court heard a plea by a woman named Laxmi who is seeking changes to the law on acid attacks and sales. Laxmi, who only goes by one name, was left badly scarred on her face, arms and chest after she was attacked with acid in 2005 in New Delhi.

Provisions in IPC Related to Acid Attack

              After the recommendation of Justice Verma Committee following sections in IPC, 1860 were inserted by the amendment Act, 2013:-

Sec. 326A. Voluntarily causing grievous hurt by use of acid, etc.- Whoever causes permanent or partial damage or deformity to, or burns or maims or disfigures or disables, any part or parts of the body of a person or causes grievous hurt by throwing acid on or by administering acid to that person, or by using any other means with the intention of causing or with the knowledge that he is likely to cause such injury or hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and with fine :

Provided that such fine shall be just and reasonable to meet the medical expenses of the treatment of the victim :

Provided further that any fine imposed under this section shall be paid to the victim.

326B. Voluntarily throwing or attempting to throw acid.- Whoever throws or attempts to throw acid on any person or attempts to administer acid to any person, or attempts to use any other means, with the intention of causing permanent or partial damage or deformity or burns or maiming or disfigurement or disability or grievous hurt to that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

              Explanation 1.- For the purposes of section 326A and this section, “acid” includes any substance which has an acidic or corrosive character or burning nature, that is capable of causing bodily injury leading to scars or disfigurement or temporary or permanent disability.

Explanation 2.– For the purposes of section 326A and this section, permanent or partial damage or deformity shall not be required to be irreversible.’

for further information /query

you may contact IAS NEXT 

Best IAS/PCS/PCS-J Coaching in Lucknow

 

BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR : BY SUDHANSHU MISHRA & SHALINI NARAYAN

Dr. B.R. AMBEDKAR

 

 

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar held a prominent position among the twentieth-century leaders of India. He was widely read in history, culture and religion. He realized that the distortion of religion and misinterpretation of history and culture did more harm to Indian social life than foreign invasions and domination for centuries. Ambedkar took upon himself the task of fighting for religious, social and economic equality in the Indian society.

Early Life and Contemporary Conditions

Born on 14th April 1891, Ambedkar was the last child of his parents, Ramji and Bhimabai. His father and grandfather served in the army and were of well-to-do family. But the stigma of their being members of Mahar community continued to influence their position in the caste-ridden society of Maharashtra. It is believed that Mahars were the original inhabitants of Maharashtra. The term Maharashtra was coined on the basis of Mahar Rashtra. However, Mahars were treated as untouchables by the caste Hindus. Very early in life due to his being Mahar,              B. R. Ambedkar had a bitter taste of discriminatory treatment. During his early school career, he got to know that birth in a particular community could make all the difference in one’s status in society. He and his brother had to carry gunny bags from their home to sit on in the class. They were denied facilities of drinking water, games and mixing with other children. Even teachers would not check their notebooks for fear of pollution. Thus, sowed the seeds of discontentment about Hindu social system in the life of Ambedkar.

Academic Carrier

            However, he continued his education first at Satara and then st Bombay. In 1912, Ambedkar passed his B.A. examination with the assistance and encouragement from the Maharaja of Baroda in the form of scholarship from the prestigious Elphinstone College with distinction. In 1913, under an agreement to serve the Baroda State for ten years after education he was chosen by the Maharaja of Baroda State for higher studies at the Columbia University of U.S.A. He made full use of this opportunity and obtained M.A. degree in 1915 and Ph. D. in 1916 on his thesis, “National Dividend for India.”

At Baroda and Bombay

            In 1917, Ambedkar joined the Baroda State Service under an agreement of the scholarship. He did not get respectable treatment because he belonged to an untouchable community. His subordinates would throw files on his table and would not serve him even drinking water. He complained against unbearable treatment to the Maharaja but no one could able to change the situation. In utter frustration and disgust, he left Baroda for Bombay only after five months. He first started a business and then joined as Professor of Political Economy in Sydenham College, Bombay in 1918. Asa teachers due to his brilliance and command over his subject. However, very often he felt insulted due to the behaviour of high caste colleagues in the college. In 1920 he resigned the job to resume his studies in law and economics in London.

Demand for Economy

In 1918, the first All India Depressed Classes Conference was held at Bombay. In it some social reforms like Lokmanya Tilak raised voice for the uplift of the untouchables. Ambedkar felt that expression of such sympathy for his community within the framework of the existing social structure of Hindu society could not bring about any change in the situation. Therefore, Ambedkar demanded separate electorates and reservation of seats for depressed classes in proportion to their population. In 1919 when the Montford Reforms were being formulated, he emphasized the need of social equality before the demand of Home Rule.

Advanced Studies in England

In September 1920, after a break of about four years, Ambedkar rejoined the London School of Economics and Political Science. He also entered Gray’s Inn to qualify as barrister. The generous Maharaja of Kolhapur Shahu Chhatrapati offered financial help to ambedkar in the resumption of his studies which he accepted gratefully. He devoted all his attention to studies. In 1921, the University of London accepted his thesis “Provincial De-centralisation of Imperial Finance in British India”, for M.Sc. Economics degree. In 1923, he submitted his thesis for D.Sc. (Eco.) on the subject, ‘The Problem of the Rupee-its origin and its solution.’ In the same year he was also called to the Bar. These academic attainments prepared him to face any situation in future life.

Love for Books

During his stay in U.S.A. and England, Ambedkar cultivated a special taste for good books. His thirst for books often made him to sacrifice his daily needs for the sake of buying some books. He built a great collection of books in his personal library in Bombay on subjects like law, philosophy, religion, sociology, economics, politics and political biographies. At the time of the Second Round Table Conference he bought books in London and sent them to India in 32 boxes. Ambedkar distinguished himself in many subjects like history, economics, politics, law, constitution and religion. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya offered to purchase his entire library for two lakh rupees for the Banaras Hindu University.

Continue reading BHIMRAO AMBEDKAR : BY SUDHANSHU MISHRA & SHALINI NARAYAN

COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF INDIAN ECONOMY

 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF INDIAN ECONOMY

 

INDIAN ECONOMY AT TIME OF INDEPENDENCE

 At the time of Independence, Indian economy was under-developed, there was low per-capita income, poor infrastructure, illiteracy, it was mainly dependent on agriculture and there was no industrial development, it was dependent on imports. Apart from these Indian economy was semi feudal, depreciated, stagnant. India suffered from capital deficiency, high population growth, famines, unemployment, economic disparities and lots more.

INDIAN ECONOMY IS DEPENDENT ON AGRICULTURE

In India, the agricultural sector occupies a vital position in the overall economy of the country as would be clear from the following:

Share of Agriculture in National Income:

Agriculture has got a prime role in the Indian economy. Though the share of agriculture in national income has come down, still it has a substantial share in GDP. The contributory share of agriculture in Gross Domestic Product was 55.4 percent in 1950-51, 52 percent in 1960-61 and is reduced to 18.5 percent only at present. The share of the agricultural sector’s capital formation in GDP has declined from 2.2 percent in the late-1999s to 1.9 percent in 2005-06.

Important Contribution to Employment:

The agriculture sector, at present, provides livelihood to 65 to 70 percent of the total population. The sector provides employment to 58.4 percent of country’s workforce and is the single largest private sector occupation.

Important Source of Industrial Development:

Various important industries in India find their raw material from agriculture sector -cotton and jute textile industries, sugar, vanaspati, etc. are directly dependent on agriculture. Handlooms, spinning oil milling, rice thrashing, etc. are various small scale and cottage industries, which are dependent on the agriculture sector for their raw material. This highlights the importance of agriculture in industrial development of the nation.

 

Importance in International Trade:

India’s foreign trade is deeply associated with the agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for about 14.7 percent of the total export earnings. Besides, goods made with the raw material of agriculture sector also contribute about 20 percent in Indian exports. In other words, agriculture and its related goods contribute about 38 percent of total exports of country.

In short, agriculture occupies a central place in the Indian economy. Its performance sets the pace of growth in the economy as a whole. It should, however, be noted that Indian agriculture is still in the state of backwardness, the per capita productivity in agriculture is less than in industry.

INDIAN ECONOMY IS DUAL ECONOMY

Indian economy exhibits coexistence of traditional and modern sector in agriculture and in industries. Well, in other words, Indian economy having the character of developing and developed economy both. We can see traditional areas are labour intensive while some modern areas are technological intensive.In India having lacs of cottage industry and at same time country is performing very well in the development of heavy industries.

INDIAN ECONOMY IS MIXED ECONOMY

In a mixed economy , private and public sector go side by side .the government directs economic activity in some socially important areas of the economy, the rest being left to the price mechanism to operate. Before independence, the Indian economy was laissez-faire. No, we opt mixed economy pattern. It is clear from above  argument that our economy is mixed.

Co.existence of public and private sector

The coexistence of large public sector with big private sector has transformed the economy intothe mixed one .

The industrial policies of 1948 , 1956 formulated by governmnet have made provision for such coexistence .some basic and heavy industries are being run under the public sector ,however, with the liberalization of the indian economy ,the scope of the private sector has further enhanced .Infact public sector never contributed more than 20% of GDP .so still more space for the private sector .

www.iasnext.com

 

INDIAN ECONOMY IS UNDERDEVLOPED ECONOMY

An underdeveloped economy is defined as an economy which has got unexploited natural resources and unutilized human resources. In other words, it is an economy, having a potentiality to grow. An underdeveloped economy shows the following features:

(a) In the underdeveloped countries, natural resources remain unexploited and underexploited due to various reasons. Systematic utilisation of natural resources alone can lead to -economic development.

(b) An underdeveloped country is basically a primary producing country, engaging its factors of production to produce only raw materials and foodstuffs. The percentage of the population engaged in. the agricultural sector is very high (70% in the Indian context) and a major part of total national income comes from agriculture and activities allied to agriculture (around 30% in India).

(c) In the case of UDCs, the scarcity of capital is both the cause and effect of low productivity and underdevelopment. Due to the scarcity of capital, a better technique of production cannot be adopted in India due to undeveloped technology total volume of production and productivity is low. Due to low production and productivity, the level of income is less, and consequently, less amount of capital is available to adopt the better technique of production. Thus, poverty is both the cause and the consequence.

(d) A chief feature of an UDC like India is its high population pressure. The high birth-rate and low death-rate are responsible for a break-neck rise in Indian population. At present, the annual growth rate of population according to 2001 census stands at 2.13%. This rapid growth of population stands as an obstacle in the smooth development of the economy.

(e) UDCs are characterized by low per capita income and grinding poverty scenario. In India, the per capita income is less than 1/3 of the per capita income of the developed western countries, and, according to the revised estimate of the Planning Commission about 50% of the total populations in India live below the poverty line.

(f) The underdeveloped countries are also characterized by widespread unemployment, underemployment and disguised unemployment. In India large numbers of people engaged in the agricultural sector are underemployed or disguisedly unemployed, apart from the large number of white- coloured unemployed, existing in the register of Employment Exchanges.

(g) The underdeveloped economies are also backward in the field of human resources. In these countries, the quality of people as productive agent is very low. There is low labour efficiency, lack of entrepreneurship and economic ignorance. People being illiterate are guided by blind beliefs, customs and traditions. People become fatalists and believe that man’s fortune is decided by fate and not by one’s own efforts.

(h) In these economies, there is a lack of infrastructural facilities like transport, banking, health, power, education and information technology. People also adopt an outdated technique of production which results in low productivity

 INDIAN ECONOMY IS DEVELOPING  ECONOMY

 Developing stands for the beginning of the process of development .after independence indian econmoy witnessed lots of positive changes .

The changes in quantitative and structural form .

QUANTITAIVE : suggest the idea of econmoic growth that means change in national income , per capita income, increase the value of world trade etc.

STRUCTURAL :  suggest the idea of econmoy development , we can see changes in infrastructure , education level , health indicator etc .

India is rated as one of the top economies in the world in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP) of the gross domestic product (GDP) by leading financial entities of the world, such as the International Monetary Fund.

As far as agriculture is concerned, India is the second largest in the volume of output. Certain related sectors of agriculture have played a major role in the development of the Indian economy by providing employment to a number of people in the forestry, fishing and logging industries.

India is regarded as the 15th best economy in terms of production in the services sector. A sizeable amount of the Indian workforce is also employed by the service sector. In the ten-year period between 1990 and 2000, the rate of growth has been 7.5%, up from 4.5% during the 30-year period from 1951 to 1980.

Verticals, such as information technology (IT), software development, call centers, IT outsourcing, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and other IT-enabled services, have been the biggest contributors in the services sector of the Indian economy.

Based on the above observations , we can conclude  that indian economy is a developing economy and is moving forward on various parameters of development .

 

ECONOMICS LECTURE -2

IAS NEXT :BEST COACHING FOR IAS PCS & PCSJ

Elements of Foreign Policy

what is foreign policy ?

 

Each nation has the right and power to secure the goals of her national interest in international relations. It is her supreme duty to satisfy the needs of her people. Each nation wants to be self-reliant in all areas of activity. However, in reality, no nation can achieve cent per cent self-reliance and self-sufficiency. These are ideals towards which a nation can try to move.

The Foreign Policy of a nation is always made and implemented with an eye on the situation in various regions of the world. A situational change in West Asia or South-East Asia or Africa necessitates a change or modification of the foreign policies of many nations.”

 

Nations have always been interdependent and these are bound to remain so even after attaining high levels of development. “Interdependence has been an incontrovertible fact of international relations.” It compels every nation to get essentially involved in the process of establishing and conducting relations with other nations. Each nation establishes diplomatic, economic, trade, educational, cultural and political relations with other nations.

For giving meaning and direction to her relations with other nations, each nation formulates and adopts a Foreign Policy. It is through its foreign policy that it tries to secure the goals of national interest in international relations. The behaviour of each nation in international environment is always conditioned by its foreign policy.

What is Foreign Policy?

Foreign Policy can be defined as a set of principles, decisions and means, adopted and followed by a nation for securing her goals of national interest in international relations. Foreign Policy defines the goals of national interest and then tries to secure these through the exercise of national power.

Definitions of Foreign Policy:

  1. “Foreign Policy is the system of activities evolved by communities for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment.” —George Modelski
  2. “Foreign Policy is the substance of nation’s efforts to promote its interest’s vis-a­-vis other nations.” —Normal Hill

 http://www.iasnext.com

Continue reading Elements of Foreign Policy