What is a Pressure Group?

Comparison of Pressure Groups and Political Parties Differences.

A pressure group refers to any interest group that has members with common interests and these members making joint efforts to pressurise the formal political system to pursue their interests. They seek to exert influence government from outside, rather than becoming a part of it.

 They do not make policy decisions, but rather try to influence those who happen to be the policy-makers.

Thus, pressure groups are essentially external to the government and sometimes known as the informal face of t politics. 

The members of a pressure group are united by either a shared belief in a particular cause or a common set of interests. People with different ideological and party preferences may thus work happily together as members of the same pressure group.

Comparison of Pressure Groups and Political Parties Differences

While the Pressure groups seek to exert influence, political parties seek to win power.

The members of a pressure group have shared interests and common causes. They may have different ideologies and party preferences despite being members of the same group.

The political parties are associations of individuals sharing common values and preferences.   Pressure groups are formed to solve their immediate problems.

Political parties are formed on ideological lines and they continuously engage in the mobilisation of the masses with the aim to capture the power and consolidate their position to attain or realise their ideological goals. While the pressure groups have narrow issue focus, most political parties have broad issue focus as well as a vision for the future. 

Pressure groups are relatively temporary than political parties. 

 Pressure groups remain confined to a select group of people, unlike political parties which engage in mass mobilization.


Both the pressure groups and political parties are the main media through which the public’s views and interests are channelled to the government. 

Both of them carry out the representation, facilitate political participation and contribute to the policy process.   In some circumstances, the political parties may act as a pressure group.

Types of Pressure Group

Although the pressure groups can be distinguished in a variety of ways (including local/national/transnational groups and temporary/ permanent groups), the most common distinctions are as follows: 

Interest and cause groups

Insider and outsider groups

Interest and cause groups

 Interest Groups

 The interest groups, also known as ‘sectional’, ‘protective’ or ‘functional groups’ are those groups which represent a particular section of the society such as workers, employers, consumers, ethnic or religious groups etc. 

The interest groups are primarily concerned to protect or advance the interests of their members. The membership is limited to people in a particular occupation, career or economic position. All the members are motivated by material self-interest.

 The examples of such interest groups are trade unions, business corporations, trade associations, professional bodies etc. Since they represent a particular section of the society, they are called sectional groups.

 Specific examples are FICCI, ASSOCHAM and India’s all-powerful IT trade association NASSCOM.

Cause Groups

 Cause groups also are known as ‘promotional’, ‘attitude’ or ‘issue’ groups. Cause groups are based on shared attitudes or values rather than the common interests of its members. They seek to advance specific cause or causes ranging from charity activities, poverty reduction, education and environment, human rights, peace etc. 

Thus, the cause groups seek to advance particular ideals or principles. The members may be from different sections or with different interests. The members of the cause groups are motivated by moral or altruistic concerns. Specific examples of such groups include the WWF, Amnesty International etc. 

 Some pressure groups may be having the features of both interest and cause groups. For example, Association for India’s Development (AID) promotes sustainable, equitable and just development by supporting grassroots organizations in India.

At the same time, it also has campaigned for some specific interests such as free Binayak Sen campaign etc.

Difference between interest groups and cause groups

 The interest groups defend interests while the cause groups promote the cause.

Interest groups have a closed membership, cause groups have open memberships

The interest groups are more related to the material concerns of the group, cause groups are related to moral concerns for the group. 

Interest groups are for members only, cause groups are for wider society. 

Insider Groups and outsider Groups Insider Groups

The insider groups are those groups which are consulted on a regular basis by the government. Thus, they operate ‘inside’ the decision-making process with a variety of degree, regularity and level of consultation.

Some of these groups become ultra-insider groups consulted at ministerial level in the executive. The outsider groups have no special links to the government.

They try to exert influence indirectly via the mass media or through public opinion campaigns.

 Thus the difference can be summarized as follows: 

Inside groups have access to policymakers, outside groups have no access.

The Function of Pressure Group


  Pressure groups provide an alternative to the formal representative process or the functional representation by providing a mouthpiece for groups and interests that are not adequately represented through the electoral process or by political parties.

 Political participation

Pressure groups can be called the informal face of politics. The insider, as well as outside groups; the cause as well as interest groups, seek to exert influence precisely by mobilizing popular support through activities such as petitions, marches, demonstrations and other forms of political protest. 

Such forms of political participation have been particularly attractive to young people.


 Many pressure groups devote significant resources to carrying out research, maintaining websites, commenting on government policy and using high-profile academics, scientists and even celebrities to get their views across, with an emphasis to cultivate expert authority.

 Policy formulation

 Though the pressure groups themselves are not policy-makers, yet this does not prevent many of them from participating in the policy-making process.

Many pressure groups are a vital source of information and advice to the governments and therefore are regularly consulted in the process of policy formulation. 

The questions have always been raised on the influence of policy groups in policy formation.

For example, many times, only a small body of insider groups are involved in the policy formulation.

El Nino Occurrences of over 400 Years

  • A study has tracked El Niño occurrences of over 400 years.
  • The El Niño trends of the past have been studied on the basis of coral cores spanning the Pacific Ocean.
  • Coral cores — like tree rings and ice cores — have centuries-long growth patterns and contain isotopes that can tell us a lot about the climate of the past.
  • El Niños are linked to extreme weather across the globe, with particularly profound effects on precipitation and temperature extremes in Australia, South East Asia and the Americas.
  • Hence, the study is expected to strengthen the science of predicting extreme weathers and plan better.

Finding of the Study

  • El Niños have become stronger and their pattern too has been changing.
  • The trend of El Niño in the last four centuries shows a variation in El Niño types.
  • There has been an increase in central Pacific events (El Niño Modoki) lately.
  • The most recent 30-year period includes fewer, but more intense, eastern Pacific El Niño events.

Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO)

  • MJO is an eastward moving pulse of cloud & rainfall in the tropics that recurs every 30 to 60 days.
  • Unlike ENSO, which is stationary (in Pacific Ocean), the MJO is an eastward moving disturbance.
  • ENSO is associated with persistent features that last several seasons over the Pacific Ocean basin.
  • On the other hand, multiple MJO events occur within a season (i.e. weather varies on a week-to-week basis).
  • The MJO consists of enhanced rainfall convective phase and suppressed rainfall convective phase.
  • These two phases produce opposite changes in rainfall and this entire dipole propagates eastward.

Madden-Julian Oscillation impact on Weather

  • The MJO can modulate the timing and strength of monsoons.
  • The MJO can influence tropical cyclone numbers and strength in nearly all ocean basins.

The MJO can result in jet stream changes that can lead to cold air outbreaks, extreme heat events, and flooding rains over North America

All About Corona Virus

What is Coronavirus?

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).
A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.

Important Note 1:
A Zoonotic disease is a disease spread between animals and people. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi.

Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans.

Several known corona viruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans.

Important Note :2
Recently Leading health experts from around the world have been meeting at the World Health Organization’s Geneva headquarters to assess the current level of knowledge about the new COVID-19 disease.

The meeting, hosted in collaboration with GloPID-R (the Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness)

GloPID-R is a global alliance of international research funding organizations investing in preparedness and response to epidemics.

Who’s at risk?

Fatality rate of Corona virus changes with age.
The average fatality rate is 2.3%, but it changes significantly with age – rising to nearly 15% among those over 80 years old.

What should do?

Responding to outbreaks isn’t a new issue for the global community, but Corona virus presents a number of challenges – including how efficiently it’s transmitted.

Donor governments should focus funding and efforts not only on their own citizens, but also on low- and middle-income countries.

Larger systemic changes are also necessary to help us respond to future outbreaks.

In any crisis, leaders have two equally important responsibilities: solve the immediate problem and keep it from happening again. The COVID-19 pandemic is an excellent case in point. The world needs to save lives now while also improving the way we respond to outbreaks in general.
The solution lies in Agile Governance.

Coronavirus has ‘pandemic potential’ – but what is a pandemic?

A pandemic is a new disease that has spread globally, according to the WHO. As most people are not immune to this new disease, it can spread beyond expectation.


Food Safety Is Everyone’s Business: WHO

 “Access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food is key to sustaining life and promoting good health. Food-borne diseases impede socio-economic development by straining health care systems and harming national economies, tourism and trade’’

It is everyone’s business,’’ says the World Health Organization (WHO) which has released figures that estimate 600 million cases of food-borne diseases occur annually worldwide. This translates into one in 10 people falling ill after eating contaminated food.

What is Food Safety?

Food Safety

Food safety is the absence of safe acceptable levels of hazards in food that may harm the health of consumers. Food-borne hazards can be microbiological, chemical or physical in nature and are often invisible to the plain eye: bacteria, viruses or pesticide residues are some examples. Food safety has a critical role in assuring that food stays safe at every stage of the food chain – from production to harvest, processing, storage, distribution, all the way to preparation and consumption.

Food Safety and the United Nations

Food Safety and the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) is the only international organization overseeing food safety along all aspects of the food chain.

Through a longstanding partnership, FAO and the World Health Organization (WHO) support global food safety and protect consumers’ health. FAO generally addresses food safety issues along the food chain during production and processing, while WHO typically oversees relationships with the public health sector. Safeguarding food so that it is safe to eat doesn’t stop with its purchase though. At home, consumers have a part to play in making sure that what they eat remains safe.

Cognizant of the urgent need to raise awareness at all levels and to promote and facilitate actions for global food safety, the General Assembly decided to designate 7 June as World Food Safety Day.


Why Do We Mark International Days?

International days are occasions to educate the public on issues of concern, to mobilize political will and resources to address global problems, and to celebrate and reinforce achievements of humanity.

2019 Theme: Food Safety, Everyone’s Business

The theme of this year’s inaugural World Food Safety Day  invites us to recognize that food safety is everyone’s business. The way in which food is produced, stored, handled and consumed affects the safety of our food. Complying with Global food standards, establishing effective regulatory food control systems including emergency preparedness and response, providing access to clean water, applying good agriculture practices (terrestrial, aquatic, livestock, horticulture), strengthening the use of food safety management systems by food business operators, and building capacities of consumers to make healthy food choices are some ways in which governments, international organizations, scientists, the private sector and civil society work to ensure food safety


Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. FAO is an intergovernmental organization present in over 130 countries. The Organization is comprised of 194 Member States, two associate members and one member organization – The European Union. The world headquarter of FAO is  located in Rome.

FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition, modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

 World health Organization (WHO)


The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations.

Food Safety and Sustainable Development GoalsFood Safety and Sustainable Development Goals

It is key to achieving several of the Sustainable Development Goals and World Food Safety Day brings it into the spotlight, to help prevent, detect and manage food borne risks. Safe food contributes to economic prosperity, boosting agriculture, market access, tourism and sustainable development.

Goal 2 — There is no food security without food safety. Ending hunger is about all people having access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.

Goal 3 — It has a direct impact on people’s health and nutritional intake. Food borne diseases are preventable.

Goal 12 — When countries strengthen their regulatory, scientific and technological capacities to ensure that food is safe and of the expected quality throughout the food chain, they move towards more sustainable patterns of food production and consumption.

Goal 17 — A globalized world with annual food exports currently in excess of USD 1.6 trillion and complex food systems demands international cooperation across sectors to ensure food is safe. Food safety is a shared responsibility among governments, food industries, producers and consumers.

References –

The Hindu, United Nation website, FAO website, WHO website

Cyclone Fani

Cyclone Fani has left a trail of destruction across a large part of coastal Odisha ,but its management has emerged as a Cyclone Faniglobal example of how timely weather alerts,  preparedness and informed public participation can dramatically reduce loss of life.

The toll from the extremely severe cyclonic storm on May 3 , 2019 stood, at last count, at 34 deaths. In terms of material losses, several districts were battered, houses flattened and electricity and telecommunications infrastructure destroyed, but the relatively low mortality shows a dramatic transformation from the loss of over 10,000 lives in 1999 when super cyclone 05B struck. Odisha then worked to upgrade its preparedness, which was tested when very severe cyclonic storm Phailin struck in 2013. It was able to bring down the number of deaths to 44 then, in spite of a wide arc of destruction: 13 million people were hit and half a million houses destroyed. The Odisha government and the Centre now have the task of rebuilding infrastructure. They should use the opportunity to upgrade technology, achieve cost efficiencies and build resilience to extreme weather, all of which can minimise future losses. Given the vulnerability of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh to cyclones, the frequency and intensity of which may be influenced by a changing climate, the center should press for global environmental funding under the UN framework to help in the rebuilding. Both States have received funding from the World Bank in cyclone risk mitigation efforts since 2011.

Cyclones in India

India is highly vulnerable to natural hazards especially earthquakes, floods, drought, cyclones and landslides. Studies indicate that natural disaster losses equate to up to 2% of India Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and up to 12% of Central government revenue. The cyclones that occur between Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are known as Tropical Cyclones. Tropical cyclones are weather systems in which winds equal or exceed gale force (minimum of 34 knot, i.e., 62 kmph). Indian sub-continent is the worst affected region of the world, having a coastline of 7516 kms. (5400 kms along the mainland, 132 kms in Lakshadweep and 1900 kms in Andaman and Nicobar Islands) is exposed to nearly 10% of the world.Tropical Cyclones. There are 13 coastal states/UTs encompassing 84 coastal districts which are affected by cyclones Four States (Andhra Pradesh , Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal) and one UT ( Pondicherry ) on the East Coast and One State (Gujarat) on the West Coast are more vulnerable to cyclone disasters. 40% of the total population lives within 100 km of coastline. Cyclones occur in the month of May-June and October-November, with primary peak in November and secondary peak in May. Although cyclones affect the entire coast of India the East Coast is more prone compared to the West Coast. Recurring cyclones account for large number of deaths, loss of livelihood opportunities, loss of public and private property and severe damage to infrastructure, thus seriously reversing the developmental gains at regular intervals. Climate change and its resultant sea-level rises can significantly increase the vulnerability of coastal population.

Classification of tropical Cyclone

The criteria followed by Meteorological Department of India (IMD) to classify the low pressure systems in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea as adopted by World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) are as under:

Type of Disturbances Associated Wind Speed in the Circulation
Low pressure Area Less than17 knots (<31 kmph)
Depression 17 to 27 knots (31 to 49 kmph)
Deep Depression 28 to 33 knots (50 to 61 kmph)
Cyclonic Storm 34 to 47 knots (62 to 88 kmph)
Severe Cyclonic Storm 48 to 63 knots (89 to 118 kmph)
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm 64 to 119 knots (119 to 221 kmph)
Super Cyclonic Storm 119 knots and above (221 kmph and above)

Refrences –

The Hindu

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project



The main characteristic of a federal constitution is the distribution of powers between the union and the states.

The Indian constitution provides for a new kind of federalism to meet India’s peculiar needs.

In the matter of distribution of powers, the framers followed the pattern of the Government of India Act, 1935. Thus, predominance has been given to the union parliament over the state legislatures or assemblies regarding the distribution of legislative powers.

The legislative powers are subject to the scheme of distribution of powers between the union and state legislatures (as provided in three lists under the constitution), fundamental rights (i.e. legislative powers cannot contravene the fundamental rights) and other provisions of the constitution (articles 245-254).

There are three lists which provide for distribution of legislative powers under 7th Schedule to the constitution:-

1) Union List (List 1) – It contains 97 items and comprises of the subjects which are of national importance and admit of uniform laws for the whole of the country. Only the union parliament can legislate with respect to these matters. For example, Defence, foreign affairs, banking, currency, union taxes, etc.


(2) State List (List 2) – It contains 66 items and comprises of subjects of local or state interest and thus lie within the legislative competence of the state legislatures, viz. public order and police, health, agriculture, forests, etc.


(3) Concurrent List (list 3) – It contains 47 items, with respect to which; both union parliament and the state legislature have a concurrent power of legislation. The concurrent list (not found in any federal constitution) was to serve as a device to avoid excessive rigidity to a two-fold distribution.

It is a ‘twilight zone’, as for not so important matters, the states can take initiative, while for the important matters, the parliament can do so. Besides, the states can make supplementary laws in order to amplify the laws made by union parliament.

The subjects include general laws and social welfare – civil and criminal procedure, marriage, contract, planning education, etc.

However, in spite of the distribution of legislative powers under the three lists, the predominance has been given to the union parliament over the state legislatures. The constitution makes a two-fold distribution of legislative powers: –

(1) With respect to territory.

(2) With respect to subject matter of legislation, (i.e. three lists).

 Territorial Legislative Jurisdiction [Article 245]

Article 245 defines the ambit or territorial limits of legislative powers. Subject to the constitutional provisions, Parliament may make laws for whole or any part of the territory of India, and a state legislature for the territory of that state and no law made by the parliament would be invalid on the ground that it would have extra-territorial operation i.e. takes effect outside the territory of India.”

Theory of Territorial Nexus

The doctrine of territorial nexus is deeply rooted in laws of India even before the commencement of Constitution of India in 1950 the government.

Distribution of Legislative Subjects [Article 246]

Article 246 provides:-

(1) notwithstanding anything in clauses (2) and (3), Parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the list 1 (union list).

(2) not with standing anything in clause (3), parliament, and, subject to clause (1), the state legislature also, have the power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the list 3 (concurrent list).

(3) subject to clauses (1) and (2), the state legislature has exclusive power to make laws for such state with respect to any of the matters enumerated in list 2 (state list).

(4) Parliament has the power to make laws with respect to any matter for any part of the territory of India not included in a state, notwithstanding that such matter is a matter enumerated in the state list.

Thus, article 246 provides that the parliament has exclusive power to make laws with respect to union list; the state legislature for the state list; and, the parliament and the state legislature, both, for the concurrent list.

However, as it will be seen later, there is a predominance of the union parliament in matters of legislative lawmaking.

Autonomy to Centre and States (legislative powers)

In Javed versus State of Haryana, the apex court upheld the constitutional validity of certain provisions of Haryana Panchayati Raj Act, 1994, which disqualified a person for holding office of sarpanch or a panch of a gram panchayat, etc. if he had more than two living children, though a similar provision was not found to have been enacted by the parliament or other state legislatures.

In State of MP versus GC Mandawar, it was held that two laws enacted by two different governments and by two different legislatures could be read neither in conjunction nor by comparison for the purpose of finding out if they were discriminatory.

Plenary power of legislature

It is an absolute power to enact laws (even if it is contrary to any understanding or guarantee is given by the state), subject only to its legislative competence and other constitutional limitations.

No limitation can be read on the ground of legislative practice or legitimate expectations.


The principle to interpret the entries (in lists) so as to make the legislative power of parliament and state legislatures ‘plenary’ is that the entries should not be read in a narrow or restricted sense.

 Each general word in an entry should be construed to include all ancillary or subsidiary matters which can fairly and reasonably be said to comprehend it.

The following points are important to understand the nature of plenary power:-

The power to make a law includes the power to give effect to it prospectively (i.e. for future acts – law to take effect from a future date) as well as retrospectively (i.e. for past acts – law to take effect from a backdate).

The meaning of a validation act is to remove the causes of ineffectiveness or invalidity of actions or proceedings which are validated by a legislative measure.


Doctrine of Colorable Legislation

The doctrine of colourable legislation is based upon the maxim that you cannot do indirectly what you cannot do directly. The doctrine becomes applicable when a legislature seeks to do something in an indirect manner what it cannot do directly.

The doctrine thus refers to the question of competence of the legislature concerned to enact a particular law. The Constitution has already distributed legislative powers between the Parliament and State Legislatures and each has power to enact within its legislative spheres, marked out for it by the specific legislative entries.

In respect of the subject-matter of a particular legislation, the question may arise whether the legislature transgresses the limits imposed on it by the Constitution. Such transgression may be patent, manifest or direct or may be disguised, covert or indirect.

To ascertain the true character and substance of the enactment, courts take into consideration its object, purpose or design.

Summing up the doctrine, Subha Rao, J. has stated in Gullapalli Nageshwar Rao vs. State Road Transport Corporation, AIR 1959 S.C. 308, “The legislature can only make laws within its legislative competency. The legislative field is circumscribed by the scheme of distribution of powers.

The legislature cannot overstep the field of competency, directly or indirectly.

State of Bihar v. Kameshwer Singh,is the only case where a law has been declared invalid on the ground of colourable legislation.

Inconsistency or Repugnancy between union and state laws (Article 254)

Article 254(1) enumerates the rule that in the event of a conflict between a union and a state law, the former prevails. The union law may have been enacted prior to the state law or subsequent to the state law.

the principle behind is that when there is legislation covering the same ground both by the Centre and by the state, both of them competent to enact the same, the central law should prevail over the state law.

‘Repugnancy’ between two pieces of legislation, generally speaking, means that conflicting results are produced when both the laws of the state as well as union legislature with respect to a concurrent list are applied to the same facts. the expression ‘existing law’ refers to laws made before the commencement of constitution by any legislature, authority, etc. example criminal law, civil procedure, evidence, contract, etc.

Article 254(2) provides for curing of repugnancy which would otherwise invalidate a state law which is inconsistent with a union law or an existing law in order that the state law should prevail in that state, the following conditions must be satisfied:

There must be in existence a union law;

Subsequent to the union law the state legislature enacts a law with respect to a matter in the concurrent list; and

The state law having been reserved for the president’s consideration has received his assent thereto.

However, the proviso to article 254(2) lays down that parliament may again supersede state legislation which has been assented to by the president under clause (2) by making a law on the same matter.

The state law may be amended or repealed by parliament either directly or by enacting a law repugnant to it with respect to the same matter. Where it does not expressly do so, even then state law will be repealed by necessary implication.

Legislative Powers: Predominance of Union Law and limitations of State Legislatures

(1) In case of an overlapping between the three lists, regarding a matter, the predominance is given to the union (article 246). Thus, entries in state list have to be interpreted according to those in the union and concurrent lists.

(2) In the concurrent sphere, in case of a repugnancy or inconsistency between union and states law relating to the same subject – the union law prevails (article 254).

(3) Extensive nature of Union List — Some subjects normally intended to be in the jurisdiction of states are in the union list example industries, universities, election and audit, inter-state trade and rivers, etc.

(4) Residuary powers (article 248) – Power to legislate with respect to any matter not enumerated in any of the three lists (example imposition of taxes) is given to the union.

 (5) Expansion of powers of union legislature under certain circumstances – in the following situations, parliament can legislate with respect to “state list” subjects:

(a) when the Rajya Sabha declares by a resolution of 2/3rd majority (members present and voting) that it is necessary for national interest; it shall be lawful for parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to that matter while the resolution remains in force. (Article 249)

(b) Under a proclamation of emergency; it shall be lawful for parliament to make laws for the whole or any part of the territory of India with respect to matter in the state list (article 250). Thus, during emergency, the parliament can legislate on subjects in all the three lists and the federal constitution gets converted into unitary one.

 (article. 251).

Nothing in articles 249 and 250 shall restrict the power of state legislature to make any law which under this constitution it has the power to make, but if any provision of a law made by the legislature of a state is repugnant to any provision of a law made by parliament which parliament has under either of the said articles power to make, the law made by parliament, whether passed before or after the law made by the legislature of the state, shall prevail, and the law made by the legislature of the state shall to the extent of the repugnancy, but so long only as the law made by parliament continues to have effect, be inoperative .

(c) by agreement between the states i.e. with the consent of state legislatures; if it appears to the legislatures of two or more states to be desirable that any of the matters with respect to which parliament has no power to make laws for the states (except as provided in articles. 249 and 250) should be regulated in such states by parliament by law, and if resolutions to that effect are passed by all the house of the legislatures of those states, it shall be lawful for parliament to pass an act for regulating that matter accordingly, and any act so passed shall apply to such states and to any other state by which it is adopted afterwards by resolution passed in that behalf by the states’ house. the parliament (not state legislature) also reserves the right to amend or repeal any such act (article. 252).

(d) To implement treaties:- Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this chapter, parliament has power to make any law for the whole or any part of the territory of India for implementing any treaty, agreement or convention with any other country or countries or any decision made at any international conference, association or other bodies (article 253).

Treaties are not required to be ratified by parliament. They are, however, not self-operative. Parliamentary legislation will be necessary for implementing them. But laws enacted for the enforcement of treaties will be subject to the constitutional limits i.e. such a law cannot infringe fundamental rights.

(e) Failure of constitutional machinery in a state (article 356). The president can authorize the parliament to exercise the powers of the state legislature during the proclamation of emergency due to the breakdown of constitutional machinery in a state.

(6) Distribution of legislative powers does not apply to union territories, in which parliament can legislate with respect to ‘any subject’ including those in the state list. Parliament has power to make laws with respect to any matter for any part of the territory of India not included (in a state) notwithstanding that such matter is a matter enumerated in the state list [article. 246(4)].

(7) Notwithstanding anything in this chapter, Parliament may by law provide for the establishment of any additional.

Defence studies Q&A Practice

  1.  write answers to posted questions in the comment box.
  2. Our experts evaluate your answers and share feedback.
  3. We will announce regular winners.

Practice set-1

Conflict Resolution will lead to a Peaceful Future: Write Notes on:

a) Amicable means of Conflict Resolution

b) Coercive means of Conflict Resolution

c) Legal Aspects of Conflict Resolution


An approach to write answers in UPSC Mains Examinations

To write the Best answer in UPSC mains one need to understand what they have been asked

The first Aim should be to understand the requirement. it is important to fully understand what a question or brief means and how it should be answered.In order to understand the question, it is useful to analyze the questions and to search for certain components. An approach to explain and guide the aspirant is explained below:

Understand the importance of your answer: Before doing anything, we should know its importance and why? One writing the answer in mains do have this awareness but the actual consciousness only a few have.

One should understand the expectation first. What is being expected by the examiner? What are they looking for in one’s answers. Just having the subject knowledge is not enough. One should understand the subject knowledge and should be able to relate it to other aspects. Here we will discuss how to cover all these in steps.

The First Step is to understand the question. This is one the most important phase of answer writing. one simple mistake in interpreting the question would lead to turning efforts into a scrap.

To understand the question, we should know the components of the questions.

The components of a question:

Most examination questions and Essays contain the following components:

Subject matter or topic: — the most general terms, what is the question about?

Aspect or focus: This is the angle or point of view on the subject matter. What aspect of the subject matter is the question about?

Instruction or comment: This refers to the instruction word or phrase. These instructions tell the student exactly what to do.

Some titles also contain the following components:

Restriction or expansion of the subject matter. This is the detailed limitation of the topic. What, in specific terms, is the question about?

Viewpoint: This refers to the requirement, in the question, that the writer writes from – or evaluates – a point of view given by the setter of the question.

So now, Once you can understand the composition of the questions, you are good to start with the very step of writing the answers.

Analyse the title: This is the most important part of answer writing skill in Main Exam. It has four phases as mentioned below:

1. Identify: here one need to Identify the title or subject area from the question body.

2. Restriction/relation/Expansion: here we need to tailor the subject area as per question need.

3. Instruction: This is to understand the requirement. What does it require you? There are different types of instruction which has been covered in later parts.

4. View Points: This is something mentioned in the question or one can easily infer from the question. This is being provided by the question setter and this might not be true every time. Here one need t related one’s own viewpoint considering the viewpoint provided. it might need to evaluate or relate different viewpoints. Sometimes, a viewpoint provided in the question restrict or related the subject matter to others. Hence this is something one must consider before scripting the answer.




Practicing answer writing has 2 benefits –

Helps you with remembering concepts in the civil services and other state level exam.

Helps you with Time, writing, formatting management, even you can plan your own strategy for exams.

An aspirant should develop the craft of writing good and concise answers so that the examiner understands them clearly. Crisp and ‘to the point’ answers will make sure that you get awarded with the appropriate marks.


Here are 5 writing tips that every Civil Services aspirant must do –

Make notes and modify them regularly according to the word limit. This will not only help you gather useful content but also help you save time in the exam, the questions paper is just permutation and combination of last year papers so here need is prepare every possible question.

Use the content of the notes effectively in the exam as and when asked in the respective questions. Using your own content will help you gain confidence. Remember it is an exam and not an extempore competition where you need to express opinions on the spot.

Always refer to multiple resources while crafting notes and hence answers. This way you will develop an excellent grasp on the subject matter.

Each note should be an answer in itself. This will not be easy at first but eventually, you’ll master the art.

Lastly, revise notes daily, weekly, monthly and nobody can stop you from qualifying the exam.

An approach to writing answers in UPSC Mains Examinations.